Several different species of white grubs including Anomala orientalis, Ataenius spretulus, Blitopertha orientalis, Cotinus nitida, Cyclocephala borealis, Cyclocephala pasadenae, Cyclocephala hirta, Exomala orientalis, Hoplia philanthus, Maladera castanea, Melolontha melolontha, Phyllophaga Spp. and Rhizotrogus majalis are major pests of turf grass.Read More
Entomopathogenic nematodes including Steinernema rarum and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora can reduce over 53% reproduction of a plant-parasitic nematode called Nacobbus aberransRead More
Cutworms are foliage feeding pest of turfgrass. Moths of turfgrass cutworms emerge from overwintering pupae early in the spring and after mating they start laying about 1000-1200 eggs at tip of grass blades.Read More
Strawberry crown moth and entomopathogenic nematodes- Nematode information In a laboratory assay, when entomopathogenic nematodes including Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora are in direct contact, the can cause over 94% mortality of strawberry crown moth (Synanthedon bibionipennis) larvae but when applied in the field, these nematodes are not in direct contact with insects therefore, they can cause up to 51% insect mortality (Bruck et al., 2008).
Bruck, D.J., Edwards, D.L. and Donahue, K.M. 2008. Susceptibility of the strawberry crown moth (Lepidoptera : Sesiidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes. Journal of Economic Entomology 101: 251-255.
Entomopathogenic nematodes and Wireworms, Agriotes lineatus- Nematode Information Wireworm, Agriotes lineatus cause a tremendous loss to potato yields throughout the world. As biological control agent, entomopathogenic nematodes can serve as a safe alternative to chemical pesticides in managing wireworms and helping to increase potato yields. It has been shown that the entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora can cause over 67% mortality of wireworm, Agriotes lineatus within three weeks of application (Ansari et al., 2009).
Ansari, M.A., Evans, M. and Butt, T.M. 2009. Identification of pathogenic strains of entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi for wireworm control. Crop Protection 28: 269-272.
Entomopathogenic nematodes for the biological control of Colorado potato beetles- Nematode information /
Entomopathogenic nematodes and Colorado potato beetle
- Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) are a most damaging pest of potatoes but they can also cause a significant damage to tomatoes and eggplants.
- Generally, both adults and larvae feed voraciously on leaves causing hundreds of millions dollars in yield loss each year in the United States.
- Many chemical insecticides have been recommended to control these beetles but unfortunately beetles have an ability to develop resistance to insecticides.
- Entomopathogenic nematodes as biological control agents could provide an alternative to chemical pesticides in management of Colorado potato beetles.
- As entomopathogenic nematodes naturally found soil, they are very effective against soil dwelling stages of host insect pests. For example, mature larvae of Colorado potato beetle that moves in the soil for pupation can be a very good target for entomopathogenic nematodes.
- Commercially available entomopathogenic nematode species including Steinernema carpocapsae, Steinernema feltiae, Heterorhabditis megidis, Heterorhabditis marelata and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora have showed a very high efficacy against adult, larval and prepupal stages of Colorado potato beetles when tested in soil under laboratory conditions.
- Ebrahimi, L., Niknam, G. and Lewis, E. E. 2011. Lethal and sublethal effects of Iranian isolates of Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora on the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Biocontrol 56: 781-788.
- Ebrahimi, L.,Niknam, G.and Dunphy, G.B. 2011. Hemocyte responses of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, to the entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema feltiae andHeterorhabditis bacteriophora . Journal of Insect Science 11, Article Number: 75.
- Armer, C.A., Berry, R.E., Reed, G.L. and Jepsen, S.J. 2004. Colorado potato beetle control by application of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis marelata and potato plant alkaloid manipulation. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 111: 47-58.
- Berry, R.E., Liu, J. and Reed, G. 1997. Comparison of endemic and exotic entomopathogenic nematode species for control of Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 90: 1528-1533.
- Cantelo, W.W. and Nickle, W.R. 1992. Susceptibility of prepupae of the Colorado potato beetle (coleoptera, chrysomelidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida, Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae). Journal of Entomological Science. 27: 37-43.
- Nickle, W.R., Connick, W.J. and Cantelo, W.W. 1994. Effects of pesta-pelletized Steinernema-carpocapsae (all) on western corn rootworms and colorado potato beetles. Journal of Nematology. 26: 249-250.
- Trdan, S., Vidrih, M., Andjus, L. and Laznik, Z. 2009. Activity of four entomopathogenic nematode species against different developmental stages of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae. Helminthologia. 46: 14-20.
- A presence of entomopathogenic nematode species including Steinernema khoisanae, Steinernema yirgalemense, Steinernema citrae, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Heterorhabditis zealandica have been reported in citrus orchards in the Western Cape, Eastern Cape and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa (Malan et al., 2011).
- All the above nematode species have showed a very high virulence against false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta an economically important pest of citrus in South Africa. For example, S. yirgalemense can cause over 74% mortality of both larval and pupal mortality of false codling moth when applied at the rate of 50-200 infective juveniles/ larval or pupal stages of false codling moth.
- Two entomopathogenic nematode species including S. yirgalemense and S. citrae were reported for the first time from South Africa (Malan et al., 2011).
Read following papers on entomopathogenic nematodes from South Africa
de Waal, J.Y., Malan, A.P. and Addison, M.F. 2011. Evaluating mulches together with Heterorhabditis zealandica (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) for the control of diapausing codling moth larvae, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Biocontrol Science and Technology 21: 255-270.
de Waal, J.Y., Malan, A.P., Levings, J. and Addison, M.F. 2010. Key elements in the successful control of diapausing codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in wooden fruit bins with a South African isolate of Heterorhabditis zealandica (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae). Biocontrol Science and Technology. 20: 489-502.
Hatting, J., Stock, S.P. and Hazir, S. 2009. Diversity and distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae) in South Africa. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 102: 120-128.
Malan, A.P., Knoetze, R. and Moore, S.D. 2011. Isolation and identification of entomopathogenic nematodes from citrus orchards in South Africa and their biocontrol potential against false codling moth. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 108: 115-125.
Malan, A.P., Nguyen, K. B. and Addison, M. F. 2006. Entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) from the southwestern parts of South Africa. African Plant Protection 12: 65-69.
Malan, A.P., Nguyen, K.B., de Waal, J.Y. and Tiedt, L. 2008. Heterorhabditis safricana n. sp (Rhabditida : Heterorhabditidae), a new entomopathogenic nematode from South Africa. Nematology 10: 381-396.
Entomopathogenic nematodes and qPCR Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technique can be used for the identification of entomopathogenic nematodes in the both Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematodae families directly from soil samples.
Species specific primers and TaqMan (R) probes from the ITS rDNA region for the EPNs were used for the identification of four species of entomopathogenic nematodes including Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema carpocapsae, Steinernema feltiae and Steinernema scapterisci (Campos-Herrera et al., 2011).
A publication on indentification of entomopathogenic nematodes using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technique.
Campos-Herrera, R., El-Borai, F.E., Stuart, R.J., Graham, J.H. and Duncan, L.W. 2011. Entomopathogenic nematodes, phoretic Paenibacillus spp., and the use of real time quantitative PCR to explore soil food webs in Florida citrus groves. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 108: 30-39.
A presence of entomopathogenic nematode species including Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema feltiae has been reported for the first time in Lebanon (Noujeim et al., 2011). Read following paper for survey methods
Noujeim, E., Khater, C., Pages, S., Ogier, J.C., Tailliez, P., Hamze, M. and Thaler, O. 2011. The first record of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabiditiae: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) in natural ecosystems in Lebanon: A biogeographic approach in the Mediterranean region. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 107: 82-85.
Use an entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora to control long-horned beetle, Dorcadion pseudopreissi infesting turf. /
The application of an entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora at the rate of 0.5 million infective juveniles per square meter can significantly reduce the population of Dorcadion pseudopreissi infesting turf grass (Lolium perenne) in the field (Susurluk et al. (2011). Read following papers for more information.
Susurluk, I.A., Kumral, N.A., Bilgili, U. and Acikgoz, E. 2011. Control of a new turf pest, Dorcadion pseudopreissi (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), with the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Journal of Pest Science 84: 321-326.
Susurluk, I.A., Kumral, N.A., Peters, A., Bilgili, U. and Acikgoz, E. 2009. Pathogenicity, reproduction and foraging behaviours of some entomopathogenic nematodes on a new turf pest, Dorcadion pseudopreissi (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Biocontrol Science and Technology 19: 585-594.
Influence of potting media on the virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes against black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus /
It has been demonstrated that five different types of commercial potting media including peat, bark, coir, and peat blended with 10% and 20% compost green waste can influence the virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes against third-instar black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus. For example, Heterorhabditis species including Heterorhabditis bacteriophora UWS1 strain, H. megidis, H. downesi can cause 100% mortality of black vine weevil grubs in all the five types of media but Steinernema species including Steinernema feltiae, S. carpocapsae, and S. kraussei can cause 100% black vine weevil grub mortality only in the peat blended with 20% compost green waste. These results suggest that when growers are selecting entomopathogenic nematodes to control black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus in their nurseries/greenhouses, they should take into consideration the type of potting media used in growing their plants. Please read following paper for the information on the method of nematode application rates and timings.
Ansari, M. A. and Butt, T. M. 2011. Effect of potting media on the efficacy and dispersal of entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Biological Control 58: 310-318.
Ansari, M.A., Shah, F.A. and Butt, T.M. 2010. The entomopathogenic nematodeSteinernema kraussei and Metarhizium anisopliae work synergistically in controlling overwintering larvae of the black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, in strawberry growbags. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 20: 99-105.
Recently, Radova (2011) reported that the chemical pesticide fenpyroximate showed no adverse effect on virulence of entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora but it reduced the virulence of Steinernema feltiae against the insect called mealworm Tenebrio molitor under laboratory conditions. For more information, read following papers on related topics
Garcia-Del-Pino, F. and Morton, A. 2010. Synergistic effect of the herbicides glyphosate and MCPA on survival of entomopathogenic nematodes Biocontrol Science and Technology. 20: 483-488.
Gutierrez, C., Campos-Herrera, R. and Jimenez, J. 2008. Comparative study of the effect of selected agrochemical products on Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida : Steinernematidae). Biocontrol Science and Technology. 18: 101-108.
Negrisoli, A.S., Garcia, M.S., Negrisoli, C.R.C.B. 2010a. Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida) with registered insecticides for Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory conditions. Crop Protection 29: 545-549.
Negrisoli, A.S., Garcia, M.S., Negrisoli, C.R.C.B., Bernardi, D. and da Silva, A. 2010b. Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida) and insecticide mixtures to control Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn. Crop Protection. 29: 677-683.
Radova, S. 2011. Effects of selected pesticides on survival and virulence of two nematode species. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 20: 181-185.
Recently, Hyrsl et al. (2011) demonstrated that the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster as an immune response can form the blood (hemolymph) clots and protect against infection by an entomopathogenic nematode (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) and its symbiotic bacterium (Photorhabdus luminescens). Read following papers for more information on the interaction between fruit fly and entomopathogenic nematodes.
Hyrsl, P., Dobes, P., Wang, Z., Hauling, T., Wilhelmsson, C. and Theopold, U. 2011. Clotting Factors and Eicosanoids Protect against Nematode Infections. Journal of Innate Immunity 3: 65-70.
A survey conducted during 2006 and 2008 showed the presence of both heterorhabditid and steinernematid nematodes in the Arasbaran forests and rangelands, Iran. Based on both morphological and molecular characteristics, heterorhabditid isolates were identified as Heterorhabditis bacteriophora whereas the steinernematid isolates were identified as Steinerenma carpocapsae, S. bicornutum, S. feltiae, S. glaseri, S. kraussei. For more information on the survey methodology nematode identification techniques read following paper.
Nikdel, M., Niknam, G., Griffin, C.T. and Kary, N.E. 2010. Diversity of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae) from Arasbaran forests and rangelands in north-west Iran. Nematology 12: 767-773.
Biological control of sheep lice, Bovicola ovis with entomopathogenic nematodes Four entomopathogenic nematodes including Steinernema carpocapsae, Steinernema riobrave, Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora have showed a very high efficacy against sheep lice, Bovicola ovis when tested under laboratory conditions at different incubation temperatures (James et al., 2010). However, the efficacy all the four species of entomopathogenic nematodes varied with the nematode species and incubation temperature.
For more information on the interaction between entomopathogenic nematodes and sheep lice read following paper.
- James, P. J., Hook, S.E. and Pepper, P. M. 2010. In vitro infection of sheep lice (Bovicola ovis Schrank) by Steinernematid and Heterorhabditid nematodes. Veterinary Parasitology 174: 85-91.
The grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis is one of economically important pests of grapes in eastern USA. Larva stages of this insect feed on grape roots and can cause severe economic damage to the commercial grape industry by killing entire vineyards. Beneficial nematodes have potential to use as biological control agent to target both larval and pupal stages of root borers. It has been demonstrated that the beneficial nematodes including Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, H. zealandica and Steinernema carpocapsae can cause over 70% mortality of grape root borer larvae under laboratory conditions (Williams et al., 2002). Read following paper for more information on interaction between beneficial nematodes and grape root borer.
Williams, R.N., Fickle, D.S., Grewal, P.S. and Meyer, J.R. 2002. Assessing the potential of entomopathogenic nematodes to control the grape root borer, Vitacea polistifirmis (Lepidiptera: Sesiidae) thorough laboratory bioassays. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 12: 35-42.
Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes including Heterorhabditis bacteriophora CLO51 strain, H. megidis VBM30 strain, H. indica, Steinernema scarabaei, S. feltiae, S. arenarium, S. carpocapsae Belgian strain, S. glaseri Belgian and NC strains was tested against larval pupal stages a white grub, Hoplia philanthus under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, H. megidis and both strains of S. glaseri showed highest virulence against third stage larvae and pupae whereas Belgium strain of S. glaseri showed high virulence against second stage larvae of H. philanthus under laboratory conditions whereas H. bacteriophora, Belgium strains of S. glaseri and S. scarabaei showed high virulence to third stage than second stage larvae of white grubs under greenhouse conditions.
Ansari, M.A., Adhikari, B.N., Ali, F. and Moens, M. 2008. Susceptibility of Hoplia philanthus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) larvae and pupae to entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae). Biological Control. 47: 315-321.
Efficacies of two biological control agents including entomopathogenic fungus (Metarhizium anisopliae) and insect-parasitic nematode (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) against western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera was compared with two insecticides including Tefluthrin (synthetic pyrethroid compound) and clothianidin (neonicotinoid compound). According to Pilz et al (2009), insect-parasitic nematode, H. bacteriophora was as effective as both insecticides in reducing population of the western corn rootworm. Reference:
Pilz, C., Keller, S., Kuhlmann, U. and Toepfer, S. 2009. Comparative efficacy assessment of fungi, nematodes and insecticides to control western corn rootworm larvae in maize. Biocontrol. 54: 671-684.
Recently, McGraw et al (2010) demonstrated that field application of three species of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) at rate of 2.5 billion nematodes/hectare reduced over 69% population of first generation late instars of the annual bluegrass weevil, Listronotus maculicollis. For more information on the interaction between entomopathogenic nematodes and the annual bluegrass weevil read following literature.
McGraw, B.A. and Koppenhofer A.M. 2008. Evaluation of two endemic and five commercial entomopathogenic nematode species (Rhabditida : Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) against annual bluegrass weevil (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) larvae and adults. Biological Control. 46: 467-475.
McGraw, B.A. and Koppenhofer A.M. 2009. Population dynamics and interactions between endemic entomopathogenic nematodes and annual bluegrass weevil populations in golf course turfgrass. Applied Soil Ecology. 41: 77-89.
McGraw, B.A., Vittum, P.J., Cowles, R.S. and Koppenhofer A.M. 2010. Field evaluation of entomopathogenic nematodes for the biological control of the annual bluegrass weevil, Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in golf course turfgrass. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 20: 149-163.
It has been demonstrated that that application of an entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora can reduce the population of the western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera in the field and thus reducing the damage caused by this insect pest to corn roots and preventing subsequent lodging of plants (Stefan et al., 2010). References:
Stefan, T., Ibolya, H.Z., Ehlers, R.U., Peters, A. and Kuhlmann, U. 2010. The effect of application techniques on field-scale efficacy: can the use of entomopathogenic nematodes reduce damage by western corn rootworm larvae? Agricultural and Forest Entomology. 12: 389-402.