Tenebrio molitor

Entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema siamkayai reported from India- Nematode information by Ganpati Jagdale

A warm-adapted entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema siamkayai Tiruchirappalli strain can cause 45-100% larval mortality of various insect species including Galleria mellonellaSpodoptera exiguaCeratitis capitataCydia splendana and Tenebrio molitor when tested under laboratory conditions at temperatures between 15- 37C (Raja et al., 2011).

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Entomopathogenic nematodes can be delivered through infected insect cadavers in commercial growing media by Ganpati Jagdale

Recently, Deol et al. (2011) demonstrated that entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae, can be delivered via infected Galleria mellonella or Tenebrio molitor cadavers in the Scotts commercial growing medium, Miracle-Gro (R). Read following papers for more information on delivery of entomopathogenic nematodes using nematode infected cadavers

Ansari, M.A., Hussain, M. and Moens, M. 2009.  Formulation and application of entomopathogenic nematode-infected cadavers for control of Hoplia philanthus in turf grass. Pest Management Science. 65: 367-374.

Bruck, D.J., Shapiro-Ilan, D.I. and Lewis, E.E. 2005.   Evaluation of application technologies of entomopathogenic nematodes for control of the black vine weevil.  Journal of Economic Entomology 98: 1884-1889.

Deol, Y.S., Jagdale, G.B., Canas, L. and Grewal, P.S. 2011. Delivery of entomopathogenic nematodes directly through commercial growing media via the inclusion of infected host cadavers: A novel. Biological Control 58: 60-67.

Shapiro-Ilan, D.I., Morales-Ramos, J.A., Rojas, M.G. and Tedders, W.L. 2010.  Effects of a novel entomopathogenic nematode-infected host formulation on cadaver integrity, nematode yield, and suppression of Diaprepes abbreviatus and Aethina tumidaJournal of Invertebrate Pathology. 103: 103-108.

Spence, K.O., Stevens, G.N., Arimoto, H., Ruiz-Vega, J.,   Kaya, H.K. and Lewis, E.E. 2011.   Effect of insect cadaver desiccation and soil water potential during rehydration on entomopathogenic nematode (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) production and virulence. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 106: 268-273.

Spence, K.O., Stevens, G.N., Arimoto, H., Ruiz-Vega, J., Kaya, H.K. and Lewis, E.E. 2011.  Effect of insect cadaver desiccation and soil water potential during rehydration on entomopathogenic nematode (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) production and virulence. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 106: 268-273.

Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes with chemical pesticides by Ganpati Jagdale

Recently, Radova (2011) reported that the chemical pesticide fenpyroximate showed no adverse effect on virulence of entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora but it reduced the virulence of Steinernema feltiae against the insect called mealworm Tenebrio molitor under laboratory conditions. For more information, read following papers on related topics

Garcia-Del-Pino, F. and Morton, A. 2010.  Synergistic effect of the herbicides glyphosate and MCPA on survival of entomopathogenic nematodes  Biocontrol Science and Technology.  20: 483-488.

Gutierrez, C., Campos-Herrera, R. and Jimenez, J. 2008.  Comparative study of the effect of selected agrochemical products on Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida : Steinernematidae).  Biocontrol Science and Technology.  18: 101-108.

Negrisoli, A.S., Garcia, M.S., Negrisoli, C.R.C.B. 2010a.  Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida) with registered insecticides for Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory conditions.  Crop Protection 29: 545-549.

Negrisoli, A.S., Garcia, M.S., Negrisoli, C.R.C.B., Bernardi, D. and da Silva, A. 2010b.  Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida) and insecticide mixtures to control Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn. Crop Protection. 29: 677-683.

Radova, S.  2011.  Effects of selected pesticides on survival and virulence of two nematode species. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies.  20: 181-185.

Can you control stored grain insect pests with entomopathogenic nematodes? by Ganpati Jagdale

Pulse (legume) grains are considered as the important sources of protein, fats, carbohydrates, sugar and vitamin. B.  In developing countries pulses are a cheaper protein source than meat.  Many insect pests including red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), India meal moth Plodia interpunctella, Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller), saw thoothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinomensis (L.), yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor (L.) and the ware house beetle Trogoderma variable (Ballion) cause a serious damage to these crops in the field and grains in the storage.  The efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against many stored grain/product pests have been studied by many researchers (Athanassiou et al., 2008; Moris, 1985; Romos-Rodriguez et al., 2006).  In the laboratory, an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema feltiae when applied at the rate 900 infective juveniles per insect caused over 66% mortality of both adults and larvae of T. confusum. This nematode when applied at the same rate also caused over 52% mortality of E. kuehniella. (Athanassiou et al., 2008)  Under laboratory conditions, another species of nematode, S. riobrave can cause about 70% mortality of T. castaneum (Ramos-Rodríguez et al., 2007). It has also been demonstrated that nematodes including S. carpocapsae, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and H. megidis have a potential to control the adults of two stored grain pests including, Sitophilus granarius and O. surinamensis (Tradan, 2006). Mbata and Shapiro-IIan (2005) also showed that various heterorhabditis nematodes including H. bacteriophora (HP88, Lewiston, and Oswego strains); H. indica (Homl strain); H. marelatus (Point Reyes strain); H. megidis (UK211 strain); and H. zealandica (NZH3 strain) have potential to kill larvae and adults of P. interpunctella. For more information on biological control of stored grain pets with entomopathogenice nematodes; please read following research papers:

Athanassiou CG, Palyvos NE, Kakoull-Duarte T. 2008. Insecticidal effect of Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) (Nematoda : Steinernematidae) against Tribolium confusum du Val (Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae) and Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in stored wheat  Journal of Stored Products Research. 44: 52-57.

Mbata, G.N., and Shapiro-Ilan, D.I. 2005. Laboratory evaluation of virulence of heterorhabditid nematodes to Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Environmental Entomology 34: 676 - 682.

Ramos-Rodríguez, O., Campbell, J. F., and Ramaswamy, S. 2006. Pathogenicity of three species of entomopathogenic nematodes to some major stored- product insect pest. Journal of Stored Product Research 42: 241 - 252.

Ramos-Rodríguez,O.,Campbell, J. F.,and Ramaswamy, S. 2007. Efficacy of the   entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema riborave against the stored-product pests Tribolium castaneum and Plodia interpunctella. Biological Control 40:15 -21.

Tradan, S., Vidric, M., and Valic, N. 2006. Activity of four entomopathogenic nematodes against young adult of Sitophilus granarious (Coleptera: Curculionidae ) and Oryzophilus surinamensis ( Coleoptera: Silvanidae ) under laboratory condition. Plant Disease and Protection. 113: 168 - 173.