entomopathogenic nematode species

Entomopathogenic nematodes for the biological control of Colorado potato beetles- Nematode information by Ganpati Jagdale

Entomopathogenic nematodes and Colorado potato beetle

  • Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) are a most damaging pest of potatoes but they can also cause a significant damage to tomatoes and eggplants.
  • Generally, both adults and larvae feed voraciously on leaves causing hundreds of millions dollars in yield loss each year in the United States.
  • Many chemical insecticides have been recommended to control these beetles but unfortunately beetles have an ability to develop resistance to insecticides.
  • Entomopathogenic nematodes as biological control agents could provide an alternative to chemical pesticides in management of Colorado potato beetles.
  • As entomopathogenic nematodes naturally found soil, they are very effective against soil dwelling stages of host insect pests.  For example, mature larvae of Colorado potato beetle that moves in the soil for pupation can be a very good target for entomopathogenic nematodes.
  • Commercially available entomopathogenic nematode species including Steinernema carpocapsae, Steinernema feltiae, Heterorhabditis megidis, Heterorhabditis marelata and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora have showed a very high efficacy against adult, larval and prepupal stages of Colorado potato beetles when tested in soil under laboratory conditions.

Publications:

  1. Ebrahimi, L., Niknam, G. and Lewis, E. E. 2011.   Lethal and sublethal effects of Iranian isolates of Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora on the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineataBiocontrol 56: 781-788.
  2. Ebrahimi, L.,Niknam, G.and Dunphy, G.B. 2011. Hemocyte responses of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, to the entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema feltiae andHeterorhabditis bacteriophora . Journal of Insect Science 11, Article Number: 75.
  3. Armer, C.A., Berry, R.E., Reed, G.L. and Jepsen, S.J. 2004.  Colorado potato beetle control by application of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis marelata and potato plant alkaloid manipulation. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 111: 47-58.
  4. Berry, R.E., Liu, J. and Reed, G. 1997.  Comparison of endemic and exotic entomopathogenic nematode species for control of Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 90: 1528-1533.
  5. Cantelo, W.W. and Nickle, W.R. 1992. Susceptibility of prepupae of the Colorado potato beetle (coleoptera, chrysomelidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida, Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae). Journal of Entomological Science. 27: 37-43.
  6. Nickle, W.R., Connick, W.J. and Cantelo, W.W. 1994. Effects of pesta-pelletized Steinernema-carpocapsae (all) on western corn rootworms and colorado potato beetles. Journal of Nematology. 26: 249-250.
  7. Trdan, S., Vidrih, M., Andjus, L. and Laznik, Z. 2009. Activity of four entomopathogenic nematode species against different developmental stages of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae. Helminthologia. 46: 14-20.

Parasitization of subterranean termite Heterotermes aureus by beneficial nematodes by Ganpati Jagdale

It has been reported that three entomopathogenic nematode species including Steinernema carpocapsae Mexican 33 strain, S. feltiae UK76 strain and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora HP88 strain can infect and kill desert subterranean termite s Heterotermes aureus under laboratory conditions (Yu et al., 2008). These nematodes can also develop and reproduce in termite cadavers and emerge as infective juveniles. Please read following literature for more information on interaction between insect-parasitic nematodes and termites.

Yu, H., Gouge, D.H., Stock, S.P. and Baker, P.B. 2008. Development of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae; Heterorhabditidae) in desert subterranean termite Heterotermes aureus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Nematology. 40: 311-317.

List of insects susceptible to various species of entomopathogenic nematodes by Ganpati Jagdale

Insect Species: Entomopathogenic nematode species

Ø Apopka weevil (Diaprepes abbreviatus): S. carpocapsae All strain

Ø Armyworm (Heliothis armigera): S. carpocapsae All strain

Ø Billbugs (Sphenophorus purvulus): H. bacteriophora & S. carpocapsae All strain

Ø Black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus salcatus): S. carpocapsae All & UK strains, S. feltiae, S. glaseri & H. megidis UK 211 strain

Ø Blue grass weevil (Listronotus maculicollis): H. bacteriophora & S. carpocapsae

Ø Carpenter worms (Cossus cossus): S. carpocapsae

Ø Carrot weevil (Listronotus oregonensis): S. feltiae

Ø Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis): S. carpocapsae

Ø Citrus root weevil (Pachnaeus litus): S. carpocapsae All strain

Ø Clover root weevil (Sitona hispidulus): S. feltiae & H. bacteriophora

Ø Codling moth (Cydia pomonella): S. carpocapsae

Ø Crane flies (Tipula spp.): S. carpocapsae & H. megidis

Ø Cutworms (Agrotis ipsilon, A. segetum): S. carpocapsae All strain

Ø Dog fleas (Ctenocephalides cannis): S. carpocapsae

Ø Face fly (Musca autumnalis): S. carpocapsae, H. bacteriophora & S. feltiae

Ø Fall web worms (Hyphantria cunea): S. carpocapsae

Ø Flea beetles (Phyllotreta spp.): S. carpocapsae

Ø Fungus gnats (Bradysis spp.): H. bacteriophora, H. indica, H. zealandica, S. anomali, S. carpocapsae, S. feltiae SN strain & S. riobrave

Ø House flies (Musca domestica): S. carpocapsae, H. bacteriophora & S. feltiae

Ø Hunting billbug (Sphenophorus venatus venatus): S. carpocapsae All strain

Ø Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica): H. bacteriophora, H. indica, H. marelata, H. megidis, H. zealandica, S. anomali, S. carpocapsae, S. feltiae, S. glaseri, S. kushidai, S. riobrave, S. scapterisci & S. scarabae

Ø Leaf minors (Liriomyza trifolii): S. carpocapsae & S. feltiae

Ø Leopard moth (Zeuzera pyrina): S. carpocapsae

Ø Mole crickets (Gryllotapla gryllotapla): S. riobravis & S. scapterisci

Ø Peach borer moth (Synanthedon exitiosa): S. carpocapsae

Ø Pecan weevil (Curculio caryae): H. bacteriophora

Ø Pine weevil (Hylobius abietis): S. carpocapsae, S. feltiae & H. downesi

Ø Plum weevil (Conotrachelus nenuphar): S. riobrave 355 strain

Ø Shore flies (Scatella stagnalis): H. megidis, S. carpocapsae, S. feltiae & S. anomaly

Ø Sod webworm (Herpetogramma phaeopteralis): S. carpocapsae All strain

Ø Stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans): S. carpocapsae, H. bacteriophora & S. feltiae

Ø Strawberry root borer (Nemocestes incomptus): S. carpocapsae

Ø Sugarcane borer (Diaprepes abbreviatus): S. carpocapsae All strain

Ø Sweet potato weevil (Cylasformicarius elegantulus): S. carpocapsae All strain & H. bacteriophora HP88 strain

Ø Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis): H. bacteriophora, H. indica, H. marelata, S. abassi, S. arenarium, S. bicornutum, S. carpocapsae, S. feltiae

Ø White grubs (Amphimallon solstitiale): S. glaseri

Ø White grubs (Anomala orientalis): H. bacteriophora, H. megidis, H. zealandica, S. carpocapsae, S. glaseri, S. longicaudum, S. scarabae

Ø White grubs (Ataenius spretulus): H. bacteriophora, S. glaseri & S. scarabae

Ø White grubs (Costelytra zealandica): H. bacteriophora & S. glaseri

Ø White grubs (Cotinus nitida): H. bacteriophora, S. carpocapsae, S. feltiae, S. glaseri & S. scarabae

Ø White grubs (Cyclocephala borealis): H. bacteriophora, H. indica, H. marelata, H. megidis, H. zealandica, S. glaseri & S. scarabae

Ø White grubs (Cyclocephala hirta): H. bacteriophora, H. megidis, S. carpocapsae, S. feltiae, S. glaseri, S. kushidai, S. riobrave & S. scarabae

Ø White grubs (Cyclocephala lurida): H. bacteriophora, S. glaseri & S. scarabae

Ø White grubs (Cyclocephala pasadenae): H. bacteriophora, S. glaseri, S. kushidai & S. scarabae

Ø White grubs (Hoplia philanthus): H. megidis, S. feltiae & S. glaseri

Ø White grubs (Maladera castanea): H. bacteriophora, S. glaseri & S. scarabae

Ø White grubs (Melolontha melolontha): H. bacteriophora, H. marelata, H. megidis, S. arenaria, S. feltiae, S. glaseri & S. riobrave

Ø White grubs (Phyllophaga congrua): H. bacteriophora, S. glaseri & S. scarabae

Ø White grubs (Phyllophaga crinita): H. bacteriophora, S. glaseri & S. scarabae

Ø White grubs (Phyllophaga georgiana): H. bacteriophora, S. glaseri & S. scarabae

Ø White grubs (Rhizotrogus majalis): H. bacteriophora, H. megidis, H. zealandica, S. carpocapsae, S. feltiae, S. glaseri & S. scarabae

For more information on insect pathogenic nematodes read following books:

Ø Nematodes As Biocontrol Agents by Grewal, P.S. Ehlers, R.-U., Shapiro-Ilan, D. (eds.). CAB publishing, CAB International, Oxon.

Ø Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Biological Control by Gaugler, R. and Kaya, H. K. (eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton

Ø Entomopathogenic Nematology by Gaugler, R. (Ed.), CABI

White grub species susceptible to entomopathogenic nematodes by Ganpati Jagdale

Species of white grubs : Species of entompathogenic nematodes

  1. Asiatic garden beetle (Maladera castanea): H. bacteriophora, S. glaseri, S. scarabae
  2. Black turfgrass ataenius (Ataenius spretulus): H. bacteriophora, S. glaseri, S. scarabae
  3. Cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha): H. bacteriophora, H. marelata, H. megidis, S arenaria, S. feltiae, S. glaseri, S. riobrave
  4. Cranberry root grub (Phyllophaga Georgiana): H. bacteriophora, S. glaseri, S. scarabae
  5. European chafer (Rhizotrogus majalis): H. bacteriophora, H. megidis, H. zealandica, S. carpocapsae, S. feltiae, S. glaseri, S. scarabae
  6. Grass grub beetle (Costelytra zealandica): H. bacteriophora, S. glaseri
  7. Green June beetle (Cotinus nitida): H. bacteriophora, S. carpocapsae, S. feltiae, S. glaseri, S. scarabae
  8. Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica): H. bacteriophora, H. indica, H. marelata, H. megidis, H. zealandica, S. anomali, S. carpocapsae, S. feltiae, S. glaseri, S. kushidai, S. riobrave, S. scapterisci, S. scarabae
  9. Masked Chafer (Cyclocephala pasadenae): H. bacteriophora, S. glaseri, S. kushidai, S. scarabae
  10. Northern Masked Chafer (Cyclocephala borealis): H. bacteriophora, H. indica, H. marelata, H. megidis, H. zealandica, S. glaseri, S. scarabae
  11. Oriental beetle (Anomala orientalis): H. bacteriophora, H. megidis, H. zealandica, S. carpocapsae, S. glaseri, S. longicaudum, S. scarabae
  12. Southern Masked Chafer (Cyclocephala lurida): H. bacteriophora, S. glaseri, S. scarabae
  13. Southwestern Masked Chafer (Cyclocephala hirta): H. bacteriophora, H. megidis, S. carpocapsae, S. feltiae, S. glaseri, S. kushidai, S. riobrave, S. scarabae
  14. Summer chafer (Amphimallon solstitiale): S. glaseri
  15. White grub (Hoplia philanthus): H. megidis, S. feltiae, S. glaseri
  16. White grub (Phyllophaga crinita): H. bacteriophora, S. glaseri, S. scarabae
  17. White grub (Phyllophaga congrua): H. bacteriophora, S. glaseri, S. scarabae

For more information on insect pathogenic nematodes read book "Nematodes As Biocontrol Agents" by Grewal, P.S. Ehlers, R.-U., Shapiro-Ilan, D. (eds.). CAB publishing, CAB International, Oxon.