entomopathogenic nematode

A new entomopathogenic Stienernematid nematode from China by Ganpati Jagdale

Steinernema xinbinense- Nematodeinformation

Using Galleria mellonella baiting technique (Bedding and Akhurst, 1975), a new species of entomopthogenic nematode collected from Liaoning province of North China was identified as Stienernematid nematode and based on both morphological and molecular characteristics it was named as Steinernema xinbinense (Ma et al., 2012).

For detail information on the morphological and molecular characteristics of this new species read following literature.

Literature:

Bedding, R.A. and R.J. Akhurst. 1975. A simple technique for detection of insect parasitic rhabditid nematodes in soil. Nematologica. 21: 109-110.

Ma, J., Chen, S., De Clercq, P., Waeyenberge, L., Han, R. and Moens, M. 2012. A new entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema xinbinense n. sp. (Nematoda: Steinernematidae), from north China. Nematology 14: 723-739

A new technique for identification of entomopathogenic nematodes and bacteria by Ganpati Jagdale

Entomopathogenic nematodes

Recently, San-Blas et al. (2011; 2012) demonstrated that Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflection (FTIR/ATR) can be used for identification of entomopathogenic nematodes and their symbiotic bacteria.  Although this technique can make a distinction between different species of nematodes or symbiotic bacteria, its rapidity not known.

Read following papers for detail information on FTIR/ATR technique.

San-Blas, E., Cubillan, N., Guerra, M., Portillo, E. and Esteves, I. 2012. Characterization of Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus bacteria by Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflection (FT-IR/ATR). Spectrochimica Acta Part a-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 93: 58-62.

San-Blas, E., Guerra, M., Portillo, E., Esteves, I., Cubillan, N. and Alvarado, Y. 2011.  ATR/FTIR characterization of Steinernema glaseri and Heterorhabditis indica. Vibrational Spectroscopy 57: 220-228.

A report of new entomopathogenic nematode species from Florida by Ganpati Jagdale

Steinernema phyllophagae- Nematode Information

Last year a new species of entomopathogenic nematode was isolated by Nguyen and Buss (2011) from a white grub (Phyllophaga sp.) and based on morphological and molecular characteristics, it was named as Steinernema phyllophagae.

Literature

Nguyen, K.B., and Buss, E.A. 2011. Steinernema phyllophagae n. sp (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), a new entomopathogenic nematode from Florida, USA. Nematology 13: 425-442.

New entomopathogenic nematode, Oscheius carolinensis found in vermicompost by Ganpati Jagdale

New entomopathogenic nematode, Oscheius carolinensis- Nematode Information Based on morphological and molecular characteristics, the nematode isolated from vermicompost using Galleria bait method (Bedding and Akhurst, 1975) has been described as a new entomopathogenic nematode species, Oscheius carolinensis (Ye et al., 2010).  This nematode is also pathogenic to cabbage butterfly (Pieris rapae) and mealworms (Tenebrio molitor).

 Literature

Bedding, R.A. and R.J. Akhurst. 1975. A simple technique for detection of insect parasitic rhabditid nematodes in soil. Nematologica. 21: 109-110.

Ye, W., Torres-Barragan, A. and Cardoza, Y.J. 2010. Oscheius carolinensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae), a potential entomopathogenic nematode from vermicompost. Nematology 12: 121-135.

Entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema siamkayai from Thailand by Ganpati Jagdale

An entomopathogenic nematode from Thailand:Nematode Information Based on the morphological and molecular studies, entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema siamkayai was reported as a new species from Thailand in 1998.

Publication:

  1. Stock, S.P., Somsook, V. and Reid, A.P. 1998. Steinernema siamkayai n. sp. (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), an entomopathogenic nematode from Thailand. Systematic Parasitology 41: 105-113.

Entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema siamkayai reported from India- Nematode information by Ganpati Jagdale

A warm-adapted entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema siamkayai Tiruchirappalli strain can cause 45-100% larval mortality of various insect species including Galleria mellonellaSpodoptera exiguaCeratitis capitataCydia splendana and Tenebrio molitor when tested under laboratory conditions at temperatures between 15- 37C (Raja et al., 2011).

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Entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae for the control of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus- Nematode Information by Ganpati Jagdale

It has been demonstrated that the curative applications of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae in a chitosan formulation can reduce the population of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus infesting Cretan Date Palm, Phoenix theophrasti (Dembilio et al., 2011). Read following papers for more information.

Dembilio, O., Karamaouna, F., Kontodimas, D. C., Nomikou, M. and Jacas, J. A. 2011.  Short communication. Susceptibility of Phoenix theophrasti (Palmae: Coryphoideae) to Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and its control using Steinernema carpocapsae in a chitosan formulation. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 9: 623-626.

Dembilio, O., Llacer, E., de Altube, M.D.M. and Jacas, J.A. 2010.  Field efficacy of imidacloprid and Steinernema carpocapsae in a chitosan formulation against the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Phoenix. Pest Management Science 66: 365-370.

First record of entomopathogenic nematodes in Labanon by Ganpati Jagdale

A presence of entomopathogenic nematode species including Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema feltiae has been reported for the first time in Lebanon (Noujeim et al., 2011). Read following paper for survey methods

Noujeim, E., Khater, C., Pages, S., Ogier, J.C., Tailliez, P., Hamze, M. and Thaler, O. 2011. The first record of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabiditiae: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) in natural ecosystems in Lebanon: A biogeographic approach in the Mediterranean region. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 107: 82-85.

Use an entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora to control long-horned beetle, Dorcadion pseudopreissi infesting turf. by Ganpati Jagdale

The application of an entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora at the rate of 0.5 million infective juveniles per square meter can significantly reduce the population of Dorcadion pseudopreissi infesting turf grass (Lolium perenne) in the field (Susurluk et al. (2011). Read following papers for more information.

Susurluk, I.A., Kumral, N.A., Bilgili, U. and Acikgoz, E. 2011. Control of a new turf pest, Dorcadion pseudopreissi (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), with the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Journal of Pest Science 84: 321-326.

Susurluk, I.A., Kumral, N.A., Peters, A., Bilgili, U. and Acikgoz, E. 2009.  Pathogenicity, reproduction and foraging behaviours of some entomopathogenic nematodes on a new turf pest, Dorcadion pseudopreissi (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Biocontrol Science and Technology 19: 585-594.

Entomopathogenic nematodes and insect parasitoids can work together to kill insect pests by Ganpati Jagdale

In a laboratory study, recently it has been demonstrated that the combined application of an entomopathogenic nematode,  Heterorhabditis indica and an insect parasitoid, Habrobracon hebetor can enhance the mortality of Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Please read following literature for more information on compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes and insect parasitoides

Mbata, G.N. and Shapiro-Ilan, D.I. 2010 Compatibility of Heterorhabditis indica (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) and Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for biological control of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Biological Control. 54: 75-82.

Control Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus with an entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri by Ganpati Jagdale

It has been demonstrated that the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri CCA strain can infect engorged Rhipicephalus ( Boophilus) microplus female ticks within two hours of exposure.  However, nematodes can cause over 90% mortality of ticks when they are in contact with the ticks for 24 hours. Read following papers for more information on interaction between entomopathogenic nematodes and ticks.

de Carvalho, L.B., Furlong, J., Prata, M.C.D., dos Reis, E.S., Batista, E.S.D., Faza, A.P. and Leite R.C. 2010.  Evaluation in vitro of the infection times of engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus by the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri CCA strain. Ciencia Rural. 40: 939-943.

Freitas-Ribeiro G.M., Furlong, J., Vasconcelos, V.O., Dolinski, C. and Loures-Ribeiro, A. 2005.  Analysis of biological parameters of Boophilus microplus Canestrini, 1887 exposed to entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae Santa Rosa and all strains (Steinernema : Rhabditida). Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. 48: 911-919.

Kocan, K.M., Pidherney, M.S., Blouin, E.F., Claypool, P.L., Samish, M. and Glazer, I. 1998.  Interaction of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae) with selected species of ixodid ticks (Acari : Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology. 35: 514-520.

Monteiro, C.M.D., Prata, M.C.D., Furlong, J., Faza, A.P., Mendes, A.S., Andalo, V. and Moino, A.2010.  Heterorhabditis amazonensis (Rhabditidae: Heterorhabditidae), strain RSC-5, for biological control of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Parasitology Research. 106: 821-826.

Reis-Menini, C.M.R., Prata, M.C.A., Furlong, J. and Silva, E.R. 2008.  Compatibility between the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri (Rhabditida : Steinernematidae) and an acaricide in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari : Ixodidae). Parasitology Research. 103: 1391-1396.

Biological control of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus with entomopathogenic nematodes by Ganpati Jagdale

Recently, it has been demonstrated that the entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis amazonensis strain RSC-5 have a potential to use as a biological control agent against cattle tickRhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Monteiro et al., 2010), which is considered to be the most important tick parasite of livestock in the world.  This hardy tick can be found on many hosts including cattle, buffalo, horses, donkeys, goats, sheep, deer, pigs, dogs and some wild animals. This tick can also transmit babesiosis (cattle fever), which is caused by the protozoal parasites,  Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis.  Also, transmit  anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale. Read following literature for more information on interaction between entomopathogenic nematodes and animal parasitic ticks

Freitas-Ribeiro G.M., Furlong, J., Vasconcelos, V.O., Dolinski, C. and Loures-Ribeiro, A. 2005.  Analysis of biological parameters of Boophilus microplus Canestrini, 1887 exposed to entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae Santa Rosa and all strains (Steinernema : Rhabditida). Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. 48: 911-919.

Kocan, K.M., Pidherney, M.S., Blouin, E.F., Claypool, P.L., Samish, M. and Glazer, I. 1998.  Interaction of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae) with selected species of ixodid ticks (Acari : Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology. 35: 514-520.

Monteiro, C.M.D., Prata, M.C.D., Furlong, J., Faza, A.P., Mendes, A.S., Andalo, V. and Moino, A.2010.  Heterorhabditis amazonensis (Rhabditidae: Heterorhabditidae), strain RSC-5, for biological control of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Parasitology Research. 106: 821-826.

Reis-Menini, C.M.R., Prata, M.C.A., Furlong, J. and Silva, E.R. 2008.  Compatibility between the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri (Rhabditida : Steinernematidae) and an acaricide in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari : Ixodidae). Parasitology Research. 103: 1391-1396.

A record of new entomopathogenic nematode species from Brazil by Ganpati Jagdale

An entomopathogenic nematode in a soil sample collected from a natural forest in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil was described using both morphological and molecular characteristics as a new species "Steinernema brazilense (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae)" (Nguyen et al., 2010). Reference:

Nguyen, K.B., Ginarte, C.M.A., Leite, L.G., dos Santos, J.M. and Harakava, R. 2010. Steinernema brazilense n. sp (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), a new entomopathogenic nematode from Mato Grosso, Brazil. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 103: 8-20.

Control oriental beetles, Anomala orientalis with an entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema scarabaei by Ganpati Jagdale

The oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis is one of most damaging white grub species of turfgrass. An entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scarabaei has been used as effective biological control agent against these beetles.  When infective juveniles of this nematode applied at the rate of 2.5 billion per hectare of turfgrass they can suppress over 77% population of oriental beetles (Koppenhofer and Fuzy, 2009). For more information on the effects of entomopathogenic nematodes on different species of white grubs.

Alm, S.R., Yeh, T., Hanula, J.L. and Georgis, R. 1992. Biological control of japanese, oriental and black turfgrass ataenius beetel (Coleoptera, Scarabidae) larvae with entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda, Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 85: 1660-1665.

Choo, H.Y., Kaya, H.K., Huh, J., Lee, D.W., Kim, H.H., Lee, S.M. and Choo, Y.M. 2002. Entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) and a fungus Beauveria brongniartii for biological control of the white grubs, Ectinohoplia rufipes and Exomala orientalis, in Korean golf courses. Biocontrol. 47: 177-192.

Koppenhofer, A.M., Brown, I.M., Gaugler, R., Grewal, P.S., Kaya, H.K. and Klein MG. 2000. Synergism of entomopathogenic nematodes and imidacloprid against white grubs: Greenhouse and field evaluation. Biological Control. 19: 245-251.

Koppenhofer, A.M. and Fuzy, E.M. 2009. Long-term effects and persistence of Steinernema scarabaei applied for suppression of Anomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Biological Control. 48: 63-72.

Koppenhofer, A.M. and Fuzy E.M. 2004. Effect of white grub developmental stage on susceptibility to entomopathogenic nematodes. Journal of Economic Entomology. 97: 1842-1849.

Koppenhofer, A.M. and Fuzy, E.M. 2003. Steinernema scarabaei for the control of white grubs. Biological Control. 28: 47-59.

Koppenhofer, A.M. and Fuzy, E.M. 2008. Effect of the anthranilic diamide insecticide, chlorantraniliprole, on Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Rhabditida : Heterorhabditidae) efficacy against white grubs (Coleoptera : Scarabaeldae). Biological Control. 45: 93-102.

Koppenhofer, A.M., Fuzy, E.M., Crocker, R.L., Gelernter, W.D. and Polavarapu, S. 2004. Pathogenicity of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema glaseri, and S. scarabaei (Rhabditida : Heterorhabditidae, Steinernematidae) against 12 white grub species (Coleoptera : Scarabaeidae). Biocontrol Science and Technology. 14: 87-92.

Koppenhofer, A.M., Cowles, R.S., Cowles, E.A., Fuzy, E.M. and Baumgartner, L. 2002. Comparison of neonicotinoid insecticides as synergists for entomopathogenic nematodes. Biological Control 24: 90-97.

Koppenhofer, A.M., Grewal, P.S. and Fuzy, E.M. 2006. Virulence of the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Heterorhabditis zealandica, and Steinernema scarabaei against five white grub species (Coleoptera : Scarabaeidae) of economic importance in turfgrass in North America. Biological Control 38: 397-404

Lee, D.W., Choo, H.Y., Kaya, H.K., Lee, S.M., Smitley, D.R., Shin, H.K. and Park, C.G. 2002. Laboratory and field evaluation of Korean entomopathogenic nematode isolates against the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis (Coleoptera : Scarabaeidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 95: 918-926.

Li, X.Y., Cowles, R.S., Cowles, E.A., Gaugler, R. and Cox-Foster, D.L. 2007. Relationship between the successful infection by entomopathogenic nematodes and the host immune response. International Journal for Parasitology. 37: 365-374.

Mannion, C.M., McLane, W., Klein, M.G., Moyseenko, J., Oliver, J.B. and Cowan D. 2001. Management of early-instar Japanese beetle (Coleoptera : Scarabaeidae) in field-grown nursery crops. Journal of Economic Entomology. 94: 1151-1161.

Polavarapu, S., Koppenhoefer, A.M., Barry, J.D., Holdcraft, R.J. and Fuzy, E.M. 2007. Entomopathogenic nematodes and neonicotinoids for remedial control of oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis (Coleoptera : Scarabaeidae), in highbush blueberry. Crop Protection. 26: 1266-1271.

Yeh, T. and Alm, S.R. 1995. Evaluation of Steinernema glaseri (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) for biological control of japanese and apanese and oriental beetles (Coleoptera, Searabaeidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 88: 1251-1255.

Yi, Y.K., Park, H.W., Shrestha, S., Seo, J., Kim, Y.O., Shin, C.S. and Kim, Y. 2007. Identification of two entomopathogenic bacteria from a nematode pathogenic to the oriental beetle, Blitopertha orientalis. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 17: 968-978.

Occurrence of entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae in Slovenia by Ganpati Jagdale

Presence of an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) was recorded for first time in soil samples collected from grasslands and field crops in central part of Slovenia. Nematodes were isolated using Galleria-baiting technique (Bedding and Akhurst, 1975) and identified using molecular technique. Read following literature for more information

Bedding, R.A. and R.J. Akhurst. 1975. A simple technique for detection of insect parasitic rhabditid nematodes in soil. Nematologica. 21: 109-110.

Laznik, Z., Toth, T., Lakatos, T., Vidrih, M. and Trdan, S. 2009.  First record of Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) in Slovenia. Helminthologia. 46: 135-138.

A record of new entomopathogenic nematode species from China by Ganpati Jagdale

An entomopathogenic nematode in the soil samples that collected from the northern part of the Yunnan province of China was described using both morphological and molecular characteristics as new species "Steinernema xueshannense"  (Mracek et al., 2009). Reference:

Mracek, Z., Liu, Q., Nguyen, K. B. 2009. Steinernema xueshanense n. sp (Rhabditida, Steinernematidae), a new species of entomopathogenic nematode from the province of Yunnan, southeast Tibetan Mts., China. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 102: 69-78.