Several different species of white grubs including Anomala orientalis, Ataenius spretulus, Blitopertha orientalis, Cotinus nitida, Cyclocephala borealis, Cyclocephala pasadenae, Cyclocephala hirta, Exomala orientalis, Hoplia philanthus, Maladera castanea, Melolontha melolontha, Phyllophaga Spp. and Rhizotrogus majalis are major pests of turf grass.Read More
Recently, Negrisoli et al. (2010) demonstrated that entomopathogenic nematodes including Heterorhabditis indica, Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema glaseri were found to be compatible with many insecticides including chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, lufenuron, deltramethrin + triazophos, diflubenzuron, gamacyhalothrin, lambdacyhalothrin, spinosad, cypermethrin, triflumuron, and permethrin under laboratory conditions. Read following paper for more information compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes with insecticides.
Negrisoli, A.S., Garcia, M.S., Negrisoli, C.R.C.B. 2010. Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida) with registered insecticides for Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory conditions. Crop Protection 29: 545-549.
Quantitative real-time PCR techniques for detecting and quantifying entomopathogenic nematodes from the soil samples /
Recently, a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technique has been developed by Campos-Herrera et al (2011) for detecting and quantifying entomopathogenic nematodes including Steinernema diaprepesi, Steinernema riobrave, Heterorhabditis indica, Heterorhabditis zealandica, Heterorhabditis floridensis and an undescribed species in the S. glaseri group from soil samples. Read following paper for a detail protocol of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technique
Campos-Herrera, R., Johnson, E. G, El-Borai, F. E., Stuart, R. J., Graham, J. H. and Duncan, L. W.2011. Long-term stability of entomopathogenic nematode spatial patterns in soil as measured by sentinel insects and real-time PCR. Annals of Applied Biology 158: 55-68.
It has been demonstrated that the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri CCA strain can infect engorged Rhipicephalus ( Boophilus) microplus female ticks within two hours of exposure. However, nematodes can cause over 90% mortality of ticks when they are in contact with the ticks for 24 hours. Read following papers for more information on interaction between entomopathogenic nematodes and ticks.
de Carvalho, L.B., Furlong, J., Prata, M.C.D., dos Reis, E.S., Batista, E.S.D., Faza, A.P. and Leite R.C. 2010. Evaluation in vitro of the infection times of engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus by the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri CCA strain. Ciencia Rural. 40: 939-943.
Freitas-Ribeiro G.M., Furlong, J., Vasconcelos, V.O., Dolinski, C. and Loures-Ribeiro, A. 2005. Analysis of biological parameters of Boophilus microplus Canestrini, 1887 exposed to entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae Santa Rosa and all strains (Steinernema : Rhabditida). Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. 48: 911-919.
Kocan, K.M., Pidherney, M.S., Blouin, E.F., Claypool, P.L., Samish, M. and Glazer, I. 1998. Interaction of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae) with selected species of ixodid ticks (Acari : Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology. 35: 514-520.
Monteiro, C.M.D., Prata, M.C.D., Furlong, J., Faza, A.P., Mendes, A.S., Andalo, V. and Moino, A.2010. Heterorhabditis amazonensis (Rhabditidae: Heterorhabditidae), strain RSC-5, for biological control of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Parasitology Research. 106: 821-826.
Reis-Menini, C.M.R., Prata, M.C.A., Furlong, J. and Silva, E.R. 2008. Compatibility between the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri (Rhabditida : Steinernematidae) and an acaricide in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari : Ixodidae). Parasitology Research. 103: 1391-1396.
Infective juveniles of entomopathogenic nematodes use three different strategies to find their insect hosts.1. Ambush foraging: Ambushers such as Steinernema carpocapsae and S. scapterisci have adapted "sit and wait" strategy to attack highly mobile insects (billbugs, sod webworms, cutworms, mole-crickets and armyworms) when they come in contact at the surface of the soil. These nematodes do not respond to host released cues but infective juveniles of some Steinernema spp can stand on their tails (nictate) and easily infect passing insect hosts by jumping on them. Since highly mobile insects live in the upper soil or thatch layer, ambushers are generally effective in infecting more insects on the surface than deep in the soil. 2. Cruise foraging: Cruiser nematodes such as Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, H. megidis, Steinernema glaseri and S. kraussei generally move actively in search of hosts and therefore, they are distributed throughout the soil profile and more effective against less mobile hosts such as white grubs and black vine weevils. Cruisers never nictate but respond to carbon dioxide released by insects as cues. 3. Intermediate foraging: Some nematode species such as Steinernema feltiae and S.riobrave have adapted a strategy in between ambush and cruise strategies called an intermediate strategy to attack both the mobile and sedentary/less mobile insects at the surface or deep in the soil. Steinernema feltiae is highly effective against fungus gnats and mushroom flies whereas S.riobrave is effective against corn earworms, citrus root weevils and mole crickets.