Steinernema citrae

A new entomopathogenic nematode species from South Africa by Ganpati Jagdale

An entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema citrae- Nematode Information Galleria-baiting technique (Bedding and Akhurst, 1975), was used to isolate an entomopathogenic nematode from the soil collected from a citrus orchard in South Africa. Based on molecular characteristics, this new nematode was named as Steinernema citrae that  found to be closely related Stienernema feltiae group.

For detail information read following original paper

Bedding, R.A. and R.J. Akhurst. 1975. A simple technique for detection of insect parasitic rhabditid nematodes in soil. Nematologica. 21: 109-110.

Stokwe, N.F., Malan, A.P., Nguyen, K.B., Knoetze, R. and Tiedt, L. 2011. Steinernema citrae n. sp. (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), a new entomopathogenic nematode from South Africa. Nematology 13: 569-587.

Entomopathogenic nematodes for the biological control of False codling moth- Nematode information by Ganpati Jagdale

Entomopathogenic nematodes and False codling moth
  • A presence of entomopathogenic nematode species including Steinernema khoisanae, Steinernema yirgalemense, Steinernema citrae, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Heterorhabditis zealandica have been reported in citrus orchards in the Western Cape, Eastern Cape and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa (Malan et al., 2011).
  • All the above nematode species have showed a very high virulence against false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta an economically important pest of citrus in South Africa.  For example, S. yirgalemense can cause over 74% mortality of both larval and pupal mortality of false codling moth when applied at the rate of 50-200 infective juveniles/ larval or pupal stages of false codling moth.
  • Two entomopathogenic nematode species including S. yirgalemense and S. citrae were reported for the first time from South Africa (Malan et al., 2011).

Read following papers on entomopathogenic nematodes from South Africa

de Waal, J.Y., Malan, A.P. and Addison, M.F. 2011.  Evaluating mulches together with Heterorhabditis zealandica (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) for the control of diapausing codling moth larvae, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  Biocontrol Science and Technology 21: 255-270.

de Waal, J.Y., Malan, A.P., Levings, J. and Addison, M.F. 2010.  Key elements in the successful control of diapausing codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in wooden fruit bins with a South African isolate of Heterorhabditis zealandica (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae). Biocontrol Science and Technology. 20: 489-502.

Hatting, J., Stock, S.P. and Hazir, S.  2009. Diversity and distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae) in South Africa.  Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 102: 120-128.

Malan, A.P., Knoetze, R. and Moore, S.D.  2011.  Isolation and identification of entomopathogenic nematodes from citrus orchards in South Africa and their biocontrol potential against false codling moth. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 108: 115-125.

Malan, A.P., Nguyen, K. B. and Addison, M. F. 2006.  Entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) from the southwestern parts of South Africa. African Plant Protection 12: 65-69.

Malan, A.P., Nguyen, K.B., de Waal, J.Y. and Tiedt, L. 2008. Heterorhabditis safricana n. sp (Rhabditida : Heterorhabditidae), a new entomopathogenic nematode from South Africa. Nematology 10: 381-396.