Biological control of animal pests

Influence of entomopathogenic nematodes on reproduction of Rhipicephalus microplus by Ganpati Jagdale

Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus is one of most import insect pests of live stocks including cattle, buffalo, horses, donkeys, goats, sheep, deer, pigs and dogs. This tick is known for transmitting cattle fever, which is caused by the protozoal parasites including Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis.

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Entomopathogenic nematodes as biological control agents for sheep lice, Bovicola ovis by Ganpati Jagdale

Biological control of sheep lice, Bovicola ovis with entomopathogenic nematodes Four entomopathogenic nematodes including Steinernema carpocapsae, Steinernema riobrave, Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora have showed a very high efficacy against sheep lice, Bovicola ovis when tested under laboratory conditions at different incubation temperatures (James et al., 2010).  However,  the efficacy all the four species of entomopathogenic nematodes varied with the nematode species and incubation temperature.

For more information on the interaction between entomopathogenic nematodes and sheep lice read following paper.

  1. James, P. J., Hook, S.E. and Pepper, P. M. 2010. In vitro infection of sheep lice (Bovicola ovis Schrank) by Steinernematid and Heterorhabditid nematodes.   Veterinary Parasitology    174: 85-91.

Control Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus with an entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri by Ganpati Jagdale

It has been demonstrated that the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri CCA strain can infect engorged Rhipicephalus ( Boophilus) microplus female ticks within two hours of exposure.  However, nematodes can cause over 90% mortality of ticks when they are in contact with the ticks for 24 hours. Read following papers for more information on interaction between entomopathogenic nematodes and ticks.

de Carvalho, L.B., Furlong, J., Prata, M.C.D., dos Reis, E.S., Batista, E.S.D., Faza, A.P. and Leite R.C. 2010.  Evaluation in vitro of the infection times of engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus by the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri CCA strain. Ciencia Rural. 40: 939-943.

Freitas-Ribeiro G.M., Furlong, J., Vasconcelos, V.O., Dolinski, C. and Loures-Ribeiro, A. 2005.  Analysis of biological parameters of Boophilus microplus Canestrini, 1887 exposed to entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae Santa Rosa and all strains (Steinernema : Rhabditida). Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. 48: 911-919.

Kocan, K.M., Pidherney, M.S., Blouin, E.F., Claypool, P.L., Samish, M. and Glazer, I. 1998.  Interaction of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae) with selected species of ixodid ticks (Acari : Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology. 35: 514-520.

Monteiro, C.M.D., Prata, M.C.D., Furlong, J., Faza, A.P., Mendes, A.S., Andalo, V. and Moino, A.2010.  Heterorhabditis amazonensis (Rhabditidae: Heterorhabditidae), strain RSC-5, for biological control of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Parasitology Research. 106: 821-826.

Reis-Menini, C.M.R., Prata, M.C.A., Furlong, J. and Silva, E.R. 2008.  Compatibility between the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri (Rhabditida : Steinernematidae) and an acaricide in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari : Ixodidae). Parasitology Research. 103: 1391-1396.

Biological control of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus with entomopathogenic nematodes by Ganpati Jagdale

Recently, it has been demonstrated that the entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis amazonensis strain RSC-5 have a potential to use as a biological control agent against cattle tickRhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Monteiro et al., 2010), which is considered to be the most important tick parasite of livestock in the world.  This hardy tick can be found on many hosts including cattle, buffalo, horses, donkeys, goats, sheep, deer, pigs, dogs and some wild animals. This tick can also transmit babesiosis (cattle fever), which is caused by the protozoal parasites,  Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis.  Also, transmit  anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale. Read following literature for more information on interaction between entomopathogenic nematodes and animal parasitic ticks

Freitas-Ribeiro G.M., Furlong, J., Vasconcelos, V.O., Dolinski, C. and Loures-Ribeiro, A. 2005.  Analysis of biological parameters of Boophilus microplus Canestrini, 1887 exposed to entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae Santa Rosa and all strains (Steinernema : Rhabditida). Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. 48: 911-919.

Kocan, K.M., Pidherney, M.S., Blouin, E.F., Claypool, P.L., Samish, M. and Glazer, I. 1998.  Interaction of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae) with selected species of ixodid ticks (Acari : Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology. 35: 514-520.

Monteiro, C.M.D., Prata, M.C.D., Furlong, J., Faza, A.P., Mendes, A.S., Andalo, V. and Moino, A.2010.  Heterorhabditis amazonensis (Rhabditidae: Heterorhabditidae), strain RSC-5, for biological control of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Parasitology Research. 106: 821-826.

Reis-Menini, C.M.R., Prata, M.C.A., Furlong, J. and Silva, E.R. 2008.  Compatibility between the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri (Rhabditida : Steinernematidae) and an acaricide in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari : Ixodidae). Parasitology Research. 103: 1391-1396.