Interactions between ticks and entomopathogenic nematodes
Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus is one of most import insect pests of live stocks including cattle, buffalo, horses, donkeys, goats, sheep, deer, pigs and dogs. This tick is known for transmitting cattle fever, which is caused by the protozoal parasites including Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis. Since this disease can cause a significant economic loss to cattle industry, its control is essential. Entomopathogenic nematodes have a potential to suppress the population of ticks (see literature below). Recently, it has been demonstrated that the reproduction potential of engorged tick females was affected when they were infected with entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis indica (da Silva et al., 2012).
da Silva, E.R., Monteiro, C.M.D., Reis-Menini, C., Prata, M.C.D., Dolinski, C. and Furlong, J. 2012. Action of Heterorhabditis indica (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) strain LPP1 on the reproductive biology of engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Biological Control 62: 140-143.
de Carvalho, L.B., Furlong, J., Prata, M.C.D., dos Reis, E.S., Batista, E.S.D., Faza, A.P. and Leite R.C. 2010. Evaluation in vitro of the infection times of engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus by the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri CCA strain. Ciencia Rural 40: 939-943.
Freitas-Ribeiro G.M., Furlong, J., Vasconcelos, V.O., Dolinski, C. and Loures-Ribeiro, A. 2005. Analysis of biological parameters of Boophilus microplus Canestrini, 1887 exposed to entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae Santa Rosa and all strains (Steinernema: Rhabditida). Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. 48: 911-919.
Kocan, K.M., Pidherney, M.S., Blouin, E.F., Claypool, P.L., Samish, M. and Glazer, I. 1998. Interaction of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae) with selected species of ixodid ticks (Acari : Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 35: 514-520.
Monteiro, C.M.D., Prata, M.C.D., Furlong, J., Faza, A.P., Mendes, A.S., Andalo, V. and Moino, A.2010. Heterorhabditis amazonensis (Rhabditidae: Heterorhabditidae), strain RSC-5, for biological control of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Parasitology Research 106: 821-826.
Reis-Menini, C.M.R., Prata, M.C.A., Furlong, J. and Silva, E.R. 2008. Compatibility between the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri (Rhabditida : Steinernematidae) and an acaricide in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari : Ixodidae). Parasitology Research 103: 1391-1396.