Small hive beetles, Aethina tumida are the most devastating insect pest of honey bee (Aphis mellifera) hives (Photo 1). Both adults and larvae of small hive beetle cause direct and indirect damages to honeybees. In case of direct damage, larvae of small hive beetle directly feed on the honeybee brood, honey. pollen and destroy honeycombs. In case of indirect damage, both adults and larvae of small hive beetle spread yeast, Kodamaea ohmeri into the colony and yeast that grows on the honeycombs causes fermentation of honey, which is not suitable for human consumption or as the food for honeybees.Read More
Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against white grub, Holotrichia longipennis Today, I read a paper published in Journal of Pest Science by Khatri-Chhetri et al. (2011), who tested the efficacy of two newly isolated entomopathogenic nematode species from Nepal against white grub, Holotrichia longipennis. This white grub is a very serious pest of many crops including black gram, cabbage, chilies, maize, millet, paddy soybean and tomato.Read More
Entomopathogenic nematodes from Egypt
The occurrence and distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes including Heterorhabditis indica, Steinernema abbasi and Steinernema carpocapsae have been reported from four geographical regions (Northern, Middle, Southern and Sinai Peninsula) of Egypt.
These findings were presented by Abu-Shady, N.M., Shamseldean, M.M., Abd-Elbary, N.A. and Stock, S.P. at the 50th annual meeting of the Society of Nematologists held in Corvallis, Oregon from July 17-20, 2011.
Heterorhabditis indica and Steinernema carpocapsae for controlling alfalfa weevil Application of Heterorhabditis indica and S. carpocapase at the rate 1 billion nematodes per hectare can reduce 72 and 50% population of alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica grubs, respectively. Another entomopathogenic nematode, Steinemema thermophillum was also effective in killing H. postica grubs (Shah et al., 2011).
Read following paper for information on the effect of entomopathogenic nematodes on alfalfa weevil
Shah, N.K., Azmi, M.I. and Tyagi, P.K. 2011. Pathogenicity of Rhabditid nematodes (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) to the grubs of alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Range Management and Agroforestry 32: 64-67.
Recently, Negrisoli et al. (2010) demonstrated that entomopathogenic nematodes including Heterorhabditis indica, Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema glaseri were found to be compatible with many insecticides including chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, lufenuron, deltramethrin + triazophos, diflubenzuron, gamacyhalothrin, lambdacyhalothrin, spinosad, cypermethrin, triflumuron, and permethrin under laboratory conditions. Read following paper for more information compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes with insecticides.
Negrisoli, A.S., Garcia, M.S., Negrisoli, C.R.C.B. 2010. Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida) with registered insecticides for Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory conditions. Crop Protection 29: 545-549.
Quantitative real-time PCR techniques for detecting and quantifying entomopathogenic nematodes from the soil samples /
Recently, a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technique has been developed by Campos-Herrera et al (2011) for detecting and quantifying entomopathogenic nematodes including Steinernema diaprepesi, Steinernema riobrave, Heterorhabditis indica, Heterorhabditis zealandica, Heterorhabditis floridensis and an undescribed species in the S. glaseri group from soil samples. Read following paper for a detail protocol of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technique
Campos-Herrera, R., Johnson, E. G, El-Borai, F. E., Stuart, R. J., Graham, J. H. and Duncan, L. W.2011. Long-term stability of entomopathogenic nematode spatial patterns in soil as measured by sentinel insects and real-time PCR. Annals of Applied Biology 158: 55-68.
Efficacy of four new entomopathogenic nematode strains including Heterorhabditis indica strains MP17 and MP111, Heterorhabditis sp. strain MP68 and Steinernema minuta strain MP10 from Thailand was tested against the second instar larva of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica in laboratory bioassays. This study demonstrated that the strains of both H. indica and Heterorhabditis spp. were more efficacious against P. japonica that the strain of Steinernema minuta. However, when comparisons were made among the strains of Heterorhabditis nematodes, MP111 strain of H. indica was the most efficacious against the second instar larva of Japanese beetle . Read following paper on the virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes from Thailand on Japanese beetle.
Maneesakorn, P., An, R., Grewal, P.S.and Chandrapatya, A. 2010. Virulence of our new strains of entomopathogenic nematodes from Thailand against second instar larva of the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Thai Journal of Agricultural Science.43: 61-66.
In a laboratory study, recently it has been demonstrated that the combined application of an entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis indica and an insect parasitoid, Habrobracon hebetor can enhance the mortality of Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Please read following literature for more information on compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes and insect parasitoides
Mbata, G.N. and Shapiro-Ilan, D.I. 2010 Compatibility of Heterorhabditis indica (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) and Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for biological control of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Biological Control. 54: 75-82.
Entomopathogenic nematodes including Steinernema riobrave and Heterorhabditis indica were evalusted against a small hive beetle Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) in the field. According to Ellis et al. (2010) both nematode species caused over 76% mortality of hive beetles. Shapiro-Ilan et al. (2010) tested efficacy of H. indica and Steinernema carpocapsae against hive beetles and demonstrated that both nematode species when applied through infected host cadavers can cause up to 78% control in hive beetles. This suggests that entomopathogenic nematodes have a potential to use as biological control agents against hive beetles. Read following papers for detail information on effect of entomopathogenic nematodes on the small hive beetles.
Ellis, J.D., Spiewok, S., Delaplane, K.S., Buchholz, S., Neumann, P. and Tedders, W.L. 2010. Susceptibility of Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) larvae and pupae to entomopathogenic nematodes. Journal of Economic Entomology. 103: 1-9.
Shapiro-Ilan, D.I., Morales-Ramos, J.A., Rojas, M.G. and Tedders, W.L. 2010. Effects of a novel entomopathogenic nematode-infected host formulation on cadaver integrity, nematode yield, and suppression of Diaprepes abbreviatus and Aethina tumida. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 103: 103-108.
Recently a survey was conducted to study the occurrence and distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes in Nepal. Although a total of 276 soil samples were collected from various habitats, entomopathogenic nematode were found only in 29 samples. Nematodes were isolates using the Galleria-baiting technique (Bedding and Akhurst,1975). Both heterorhabditid and steinernematid nematodes were identified at their species level using both molecular and morphological techniques. In this survey, the occurrence of only one species of heterorhabditids including Heterorhabditis indica and four described species of steinernematids such as Steinernema abbasi, S. cholashanense, S. feltiae and S. siamkayai were reported for the first time in Nepal (Khatri-Chhetri et al., 2010). Read following literature for more information
Bedding, R.A. and R.J. Akhurst. 1975. A simple technique for detection of insect parasitic rhabditid nematodes in soil. Nematologica. 21: 109-110.
Khatri-Chhetri, H.B., Waeyenberge, L., Manandhar, H.K. and Moens, M. 2010. Natural occurrence and distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) in Nepal. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 103: 74-78.