Control oriental beetles, Anomala orientalis with an entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema scarabaei / by Ganpati Jagdale

The oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis is one of most damaging white grub species of turfgrass. An entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scarabaei has been used as effective biological control agent against these beetles.  When infective juveniles of this nematode applied at the rate of 2.5 billion per hectare of turfgrass they can suppress over 77% population of oriental beetles (Koppenhofer and Fuzy, 2009). For more information on the effects of entomopathogenic nematodes on different species of white grubs.

Alm, S.R., Yeh, T., Hanula, J.L. and Georgis, R. 1992. Biological control of japanese, oriental and black turfgrass ataenius beetel (Coleoptera, Scarabidae) larvae with entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda, Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 85: 1660-1665.

Choo, H.Y., Kaya, H.K., Huh, J., Lee, D.W., Kim, H.H., Lee, S.M. and Choo, Y.M. 2002. Entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) and a fungus Beauveria brongniartii for biological control of the white grubs, Ectinohoplia rufipes and Exomala orientalis, in Korean golf courses. Biocontrol. 47: 177-192.

Koppenhofer, A.M., Brown, I.M., Gaugler, R., Grewal, P.S., Kaya, H.K. and Klein MG. 2000. Synergism of entomopathogenic nematodes and imidacloprid against white grubs: Greenhouse and field evaluation. Biological Control. 19: 245-251.

Koppenhofer, A.M. and Fuzy, E.M. 2009. Long-term effects and persistence of Steinernema scarabaei applied for suppression of Anomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Biological Control. 48: 63-72.

Koppenhofer, A.M. and Fuzy E.M. 2004. Effect of white grub developmental stage on susceptibility to entomopathogenic nematodes. Journal of Economic Entomology. 97: 1842-1849.

Koppenhofer, A.M. and Fuzy, E.M. 2003. Steinernema scarabaei for the control of white grubs. Biological Control. 28: 47-59.

Koppenhofer, A.M. and Fuzy, E.M. 2008. Effect of the anthranilic diamide insecticide, chlorantraniliprole, on Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Rhabditida : Heterorhabditidae) efficacy against white grubs (Coleoptera : Scarabaeldae). Biological Control. 45: 93-102.

Koppenhofer, A.M., Fuzy, E.M., Crocker, R.L., Gelernter, W.D. and Polavarapu, S. 2004. Pathogenicity of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema glaseri, and S. scarabaei (Rhabditida : Heterorhabditidae, Steinernematidae) against 12 white grub species (Coleoptera : Scarabaeidae). Biocontrol Science and Technology. 14: 87-92.

Koppenhofer, A.M., Cowles, R.S., Cowles, E.A., Fuzy, E.M. and Baumgartner, L. 2002. Comparison of neonicotinoid insecticides as synergists for entomopathogenic nematodes. Biological Control 24: 90-97.

Koppenhofer, A.M., Grewal, P.S. and Fuzy, E.M. 2006. Virulence of the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Heterorhabditis zealandica, and Steinernema scarabaei against five white grub species (Coleoptera : Scarabaeidae) of economic importance in turfgrass in North America. Biological Control 38: 397-404

Lee, D.W., Choo, H.Y., Kaya, H.K., Lee, S.M., Smitley, D.R., Shin, H.K. and Park, C.G. 2002. Laboratory and field evaluation of Korean entomopathogenic nematode isolates against the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis (Coleoptera : Scarabaeidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 95: 918-926.

Li, X.Y., Cowles, R.S., Cowles, E.A., Gaugler, R. and Cox-Foster, D.L. 2007. Relationship between the successful infection by entomopathogenic nematodes and the host immune response. International Journal for Parasitology. 37: 365-374.

Mannion, C.M., McLane, W., Klein, M.G., Moyseenko, J., Oliver, J.B. and Cowan D. 2001. Management of early-instar Japanese beetle (Coleoptera : Scarabaeidae) in field-grown nursery crops. Journal of Economic Entomology. 94: 1151-1161.

Polavarapu, S., Koppenhoefer, A.M., Barry, J.D., Holdcraft, R.J. and Fuzy, E.M. 2007. Entomopathogenic nematodes and neonicotinoids for remedial control of oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis (Coleoptera : Scarabaeidae), in highbush blueberry. Crop Protection. 26: 1266-1271.

Yeh, T. and Alm, S.R. 1995. Evaluation of Steinernema glaseri (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) for biological control of japanese and apanese and oriental beetles (Coleoptera, Searabaeidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 88: 1251-1255.

Yi, Y.K., Park, H.W., Shrestha, S., Seo, J., Kim, Y.O., Shin, C.S. and Kim, Y. 2007. Identification of two entomopathogenic bacteria from a nematode pathogenic to the oriental beetle, Blitopertha orientalis. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 17: 968-978.