The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus is considered as a major pest of palms in the Mediterranean Basin. Because of cryptic habitats of these weevils, their management with chemical insecticides is difficult. It has been demonstrated that the entomopathogenic nematodes have a potential to use as biological control agents against red palm weevils. For example, Steinernema carpocapsae can cause over 80% mortality of weevils under field conditions when applied in a chitosan formulation (Dembilio et al., 2010, Llacer et al., 2009).
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Abbas, M.S.T., Saleh, M.M.E. and Akil, A.M. 2001. Laboratory and field evaluation of the pathogenicity of entomopathogenic nematodes to the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.) (Col.: Curculionidae). Anzeiger Fur Schadlingskunde-Journal of Pest Science. 74: 167-168.
Dembilio, O., Llacer, E., de Altube, M.D.M. and Jacas, J.A. 2010. Field efficacy of imidacloprid and Steinernema carpocapsae in a chitosan formulation against the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Phoenix canariensis. Pest Management Science. 66: 365-370.
Llacer, E., de Altube, M.M.M. and Jacas, J.A. 2009. Evaluation of the efficacy of Steinernema carpocapsae in a chitosan formulation against the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, in Phoenix canariensis. Biocontrol. 54: 559-565.
Monzer, A.E, and El-Rahman, R.A. 2003. Effect on Heterorhabditis indica of substances occurring in decomposing palm tissues infested by Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. Nematology. 5: 647-652.
Salama, H.S., Abd-Elgawad, M. 2001. Isolation of heterorhabditid nematodes from palm tree planted areas and their implications in the red palm weevil control. Anzeiger Fur Schadlingskunde-Journal of Pest Science. 74: 43-45.
Salama, H.S. and Abd-Elgawad, M. 2002. Activity of heterorhabditid nematodes at high temperature and in combination with cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus. Anzeiger Fur Schadlingskunde-Journal of Pest Science. 75: 78-80.