Entomopathogenic nematodes such as Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora have been used to control white grubs that feed turfgrass in your yard. When applied in turf these nematodes search and infect white grubs. They infect grub insects through the natural openings and once inside they release symbiotic bacteria in the body cavity of grub. Bacteria multiply and kill insect within 48 hours of infection.
Strawberries are one of the most economically grown crops throughout the world and in North America with annual yields ranging from 4-20 tons per acre and average monitory values between $2,800 to $14000 per acre. There are several kinds of insect pests have been reported that attack and cause significant economic losses (over 60%) to this crop. Different species of entomopathogenic have been used as biological control agents against different insect pests of strawberries. It has been demonstrated that the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema kraussei can reduce over 81% population of black vine weevil (Ansari et al., 2010; Susurluk and Ehlers, 2008; Willmott et al., 2002). Entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis megidis and H. downesi also can reduce 93 and 51% population of black vine weevil, respectively (Boff et al., 2001, 2002; Lola-Luz et al., 2005; Fitters et al., 2001). Populations of black vine weevils were also reduced by application of infective juveniles of Steinernema carpocapsae and S. glaseri (Booth et la., 2002). Steinernema carpocapsae can reduce 51% population of strawberry crown moth (Bruck et al., 2008). Please read following literature for more information on interaction between insect pests of strawberries and different species entomopathogenic nematodes.
Ansari, M.A., Shah, F.A. and Butt, T.M. 2010. The entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema kraussei and Metarhizium anisopliae work synergistically in controlling overwintering larvae of the black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, in strawberry growbags. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 20: 99-105.
Berry, R.E., Liu, J. and Groth, E. 1997. Efficacy and persistence of Heterorhabditis marelatus (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) against root weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in strawberry. Environmental Entomology. 26: 465-470.
Boff, M.I.C., van Tol, R.H.W.M. and Smits, P.H. 2002. Behavioural response of Heterorhabditis megidis towards plant roots and insect larvae. Biocontrol. 47: 67-83.
Boff, M.I.C., Wiegers, G.L. and Smits, P.H. 2001. Influence of insect larvae and plant roots on the host-finding behaviour of Heterorhabditis megidis. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 11: 493-504.
Boff, M.I.C., Zoon, F.C. and Smits, P.H. 2001. Orientation of Heterorhabditis megidis to insect hosts and plant roots in a Y-tube sand olfactometer. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 98: 329-337.
Booth, S.R., Tanigoshi, L.K., Shanks, C.H. 2002. Evaluation of entomopathogenic nematodes to manage root weevil larvae in Washington state cranberry, strawberry, and red raspberry. Environmental Entomology. 31: 895-902.
Bruck, D.J., Edwards, D.L. and Donahue, K.M. 2008. Susceptibility of the strawberry crown moth (Lepidoptera : Sesiidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes. Journal of Economic Entomology. 101: 251-255.
Curran, J. 1992. Influence of application method and pest population-size on the field efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes. Journal of Nematology. 24: 631-636.
Fitters, P.F.L., Dunne, R. and Griffin, C.T. 2001. Vine weevil control in Ireland with entomopathogenic nematodes: optimal time of application. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research. 40: 199-213.
KakouliDuarte, T., Labuschagne, L. and Hague, N.G.M. 1997. Biological control of the black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) with entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida). Annals of Applied Biology. 131: 11-27.
Lola-Luz, T. and Downes, M. 2007. Biological control of black vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus in Ireland using Heterorhabditis megidis. Biological Control. 40: 314-319.
Lola-Luz, T., Downes, M. and Dunne, R. 2005. Control of black vine weevil larvae Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) in grow bags outdoors with nematodes. Agricultural and Forest Entomology. 7: 121-126.
Simser, D. and Roberts, S. 1994. Suppression of strawberry root weevil, Otiorhynchus-ovatus, in cranberries by entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda, Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae). Nematologica. 40: 456-462.
Susurluk, A. and Ehlers, R.U. 2008. Sustainable control of black vine weevil larvae, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) with Heterorhabditis bacteriophora in strawberry. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 18: 635-640.
Vainio, A. and Hokkanen, H.M.T. 1993. The potential of entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes against Otiorhynchus-ovatus L and O. dubius strom (Col, Curculionidae) in the field. Journal of Applied Entomology-Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie. 115: 379-387.
Willmott, D.M., Hart, A.J., Long, S.J., Edmondson, R.N. and Richardson, P.N. 2002. Use of a cold-active entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema kraussei to control overwintering larvae of the black vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in outdoor strawberry plants. Nematology. 4: 925-932.
Wilson, M., Nitzsche, P. and Shearer, P.W. 1999. Entomopathogenic nematodes to control black vine weevil (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) on strawberry. Journal of Economic Entomology. 92: 651-657.