Entomopathogenic nematodes are generally applied as infective juveniles in aqueous suspensions using various techniques including irrigation systems, sprayers and water cans. These nematodes can also be applied through infected host cadavers. It has been demonstrated that the application of nematode infected insect cadavers can provide superior nematode dispersal (Shapiro and Glazer, 1996), infectivity (Shapiro and Lewis, 1999) and survival (Perez et al., 2003) when compared with the nematodes that applied in aqueous suspensions. Please read following literature to learn more about the advantages and disadvantages of applying nematodes through infected insect cadavers.
Creighton, C.S. and Fassuliotis, G. 1985. Heterorhabditis sp. (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae): a nematode parasite isolated from the banded cucumber beetle Diabrotica balteata. Journal of Nematology. 17: 150–153.
Del Valle, E.E., Dolinksi, C., Barreto, E.L.S. and Souza, R.M. 2009. Effect of cadaver coatings on emergence and infectivity of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7 (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) and the removal of cadavers by ants. Biological Control 50: 21–24.
Del Valle, E.E., Dolinksi, C., Barreto, E.L.S., Souza, R.M. and Samuels, R.I. 2008. Efficacy of Heterorhabditis baujardi LP77 (Nematoda: Rhabditida) applied in Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) insect cadavers to Conotrachelus psidii (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) larvae. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 18: 33–41.
Perez, E.E., Lewis, E.E and Shapiro-Ilan, D.I. 2003. Impact of host cadaver on survival and infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) under desiccating conditions. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 82: 111–118.
Shapiro, D.I and Lewis, E.E. 1999. Comparison of entomopathogenic nematode infectivity from infected hosts versus aqueous suspension. Environmental Entomology. 28: 907–911.
Shapiro, D.I. and Glazer, I. 1996. Comparison of entomopathogenic nematode dispersal from infected hosts versus aqueous suspension. Environmental Entomology. 25: 1455–1461.
Shapiro-Ilan, D.I., Lewis, E.E., Behle, R.W and McGuire, M.R. 2001. Formulation of entomopathogenic nematode-infected-cadavers. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 78: 17–23.
Shapiro-Ilan, D.I., Lewis, E.E., Tedders, W.L. and Son, Y. 2003. Superior efficacy observed in entomopathogenic nematodes applied in infected-host cadavers compared with application in aqueous suspension, Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 83: 270–272.
Shapiro-Ilan, D.I., Tedders, W.L. and Lewis, E.E., 2008. Application of entomopathogenic nematode-infected cadavers from hard-bodied arthropods for insect suppression. US Patent 7374,773.