Entomopathogenic nematodes kill their insect hosts within 24 hours by Ganpati Jagdale

Entomopathogenic Nematode Virulence- Nematode information It is well known fact that the infective juveniles of both Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp. enter their insect host through natural openings such as mouth, anus and spiracles and eventually reach in the insect body cavity.  As insects do not have a closed circulatory system like animals, their body cavity acts as an open circulatory system, which is filled with the blood that is technically called as hemolymph.

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Virulence Mechanisms of symbiotic bacteria Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus spp by Ganpati Jagdale

Entomopathogenic nematodes and their symbiotic bacteria- Nematode Information

Molecular studies demonstrated that the closely related Photorhabdus, symbiotic bacteria of Heterorhabditis nematodes and Xenorhabdus, symbiotic bacteria of Steinernematid nematodes have developed totally different molecular strategies for the same objective of virulence to insects and symbiosis with the nematode.

These findings were presented by An, R. and Grewal, P.S. at the 50th annual meeting of the Society of Nematologists held in Corvallis, Oregon from July 17-20, 2011.