Why scavengers avoid eating beneficial nematode infected insect cadavers / by Ganpati Jagdale

Scavengers and beneficial nematodes- nematodeinformation

As we know that the entomopathogenic (beneficial) nematode infected insect cadavers are like pouches that are filled with different developing stages of entomopathogenic nematodes such as Steinernema spp or Heterorhabditis spp and soup of their multiplying symbiotic bacteria in the genera Xenorhabdus or Photorhabdus, respectively.  To protect the developing nematodes inside the cadavers form eaten by scavengers, the symbiotic bacteria, Xenorhabdus spp (if developing nematodes in the cadaver are belonging to the genus Steinernema spp) or Photorhabdus spp. (if developing nematodes in the cadaver are belonging to the genus Heterorhabditis spp) seems to be producing and releasing different kinds of chemical compounds that are discouraging scavenges like ant, Lepisiota frauenfeldi, cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, wasps, Vespa orientalis and Paravespula sp., and calliphorid fly, Chrysomya albiceps to feed on beneficial nematode infected insect cadavers. These chemical compounds are now recognized as Scavenger Deterrent Factor (SDF, Gulcu et al. 2012) and Ant Deterrent Factor (ADF, Zhou et al., 2002).

Read following literature on scavenger deterrent factored and entomopathogenic bacteria

Baur, M. E., H. K. Kaya, and D. R. Strong. 1998. Foraging ants as scavengers on entomopathogenic nematode-killed insects. Biol. Control 12:231-236.

Gulcu, B., Hazir, S. and Kaya, H.K. 2012.   Scavenger deterrent factor (SDF) from symbiotic bacteria of entomopathogenic nematodes.   Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 110: 326-333.

Zhou, X., 1 Kaya, H.K., Heungens, K. and Goodrich-Blair, H. 2002. Response of ants to a deterrent factor(s) produced by the symbiotic bacteria of entomopathogenic eematode. Applied Environmental Microbiology 68: 6202–6209.