Insecticidal and antimicrobial compounds from Xenorhabdus budapestensis / by Ganpati Jagdale

Entomopathogenic symbiotic bacteria, Xenorhabdus budapestensis

It has been reported that an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema bicornutum is effective against western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Ebssa et al., 2004) and western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Toepfer et al., 2005).  The infective juveniles of S. bicornutum carry symbiotic bacteria, Xenorhabdus budapestensis in their gut (Lengyel et al., 2005) and use them to kill their insect host. Recently, it has been demonstrated that entomopathogenic bacteria, X. budapestensis can produce several compounds that have bactericidal, fungicidal and insecticidal properties (Boszormenyi et al., 2009; Furgani et al., 2008; Xiao et al., 2012; Yang et al., 2012).  According to Boszormenyi et al (2009), a hexa-peptide, RLRRRX (bicornutin-A) isolated from X. budapestensis was effective against fire blight bacterium, Erwinia amylovora and fungus, Phytophthora nicotianae. Two peptides namely GP-19 and EP-20 from X. budapestensis were effective against Verticillium dahlia and Phytophthora capsici, respectively (Xiao et al., 2012). According to Yang et al (2012), a protein fraction, HIP57 from X. budapestensis showed strong insecticidal activity against wax worm, Galleria mellonella.  Antibiotics produced by X. budapestensis were also effective against mastitis isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae


Boeszoermenyi, E., Ersek, T., Fodor, A., Fodor, A.M., Foeldes, L. Sz., Hevesi, M., Hogan, J.S., Katona, Z., Klein, M.G., Kormany, A., Pekar, S., Szentirmai, A., Sztaricskai, F. and Taylor, R.A.J. 2009.   Isolation and activity of Xenorhabdus antimicrobial compounds against the plant pathogens Erwinia amylovora and Phytophthora nicotianae. Journal of Applied Microbiology 107: 746-759.

Ebssa, L., Borgemeister, C. and Poehling, H.M. 2004.  Effects of post-application irrigation and substrate moisture on the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 112: 65-72.

Furgani, G., Boeszoermenyi, E., Fodor, A., Mathe-Fodor, A., Forst, S., Hogan, J.S., Katona, Z., Klein, M.G., Stackebrandt, E., Szentirmai, A., Sztaricskai, F. and Wolf, S.L. 2008. Xenorhabdus antibiotics: a comparative analysis and potential utility for controlling mastitis caused by bacteria. Journal of Applied Microbiology 104: 745-758.

Lengyel, K. Lang, E. Fodor, A. Szallas, E. Schumann, P. and Stackebrandt, E. 2005.  Description of four novel species of Xenorhabdus, family Enterobacteriaceae: Xenorhabdus budapestensis sp nov., Xenorhabdus ehlersii sp nov., Xenorhabdus innexi sp nov., and Xenorhabdus szentirmaii sp nov.  Systematic and Applied Microbiology 28: 115-122.

Toepfer, S., Gueldenzoph, C., Ehlers, R.U. and Kuhlmann, U. 2005.  Screening of entomopathogenic nematodes for virulence against the invasive western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Europe. Bulletin of Entomological Research 95: 473-482.

Xiao, Y., Meng, F.L., Qiu, D.W. and Yang, X.F. 2012. Two novel antimicrobial peptides purified from the symbiotic bacteria Xenorhabdus budapestensis NMC-10. Peptides 35: 253-260.

Yang, J., Zeng, H.M., Lin, H.F., Yang, X.F., Liu, Z., Guo, L.H., Yuan, J.J. and Qiu, D.W. 2012.  An insecticidal protein from Xenorhabdus budapestensis that results in prophenoloxidase activation in the wax moth, Galleria mellonella.  Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 110: 60-67.