corn pests

Volatiles released by plant roots upon injuries caused by insect pests can serve as attractants for entomopathogenic nematodes by Ganpati Jagdale

Recently, Hiltpold et al. (2011) studied the relationship between synthesis and release of (E)-beta-caryophyllene (E beta C) in maize roots upon feeding by larvae of the Western corn root worm,  Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and attraction of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis megidis. These researchers reported that nematodes were attracted to the maize roots that were injured by D. virgifera virgifera. Read following papers for more information.

Ali, J.G., Alborn, H.T. and Stelinski, L.L. 2011. Constitutive and induced subterranean plant volatiles attract both entomopathogenic and plant parasitic nematodes. Journal of Ecology 99: 26-35.

Hiltpold, I., Erb, M., Robert, C.A.M. and Turlings, T.C.J. 2011.  Systemic root signalling in a belowground, volatile-mediated tritrophic interaction. Plant cell and Environment 34: 1267-1275.

Hiltpold, I., Baroni, M., Toepfer, S., Kuhlmann, U. and Turlings, T.C.J. 2010.  Selection of entomopathogenic nematodes for enhanced responsiveness to a volatile root signal helps to control a major root pest. Journal of Experimental Biology 213: 2417-2423.

Hiltpold, I., Toepfer, S., Kuhlmann, U. and Turlings, T.C.J. 2010.  How maize root volatiles affect the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes in controlling the western corn rootworm? Chemoecology. 20: 155-162.

Biological control of fall army worm (Spodoptera frugiperda) an insect pest of corn by Ganpati Jagdale

Recently, Andalo, et al. (2010) demonstrated that the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema arenarium and Heterorhabditis sp. can kill over 80% larvae of fall army worm, Spodoptera frugiperda under both laboratory and greenhouse condition. Read following paper for the information on the effect of entomopathogenic nematodes on fall army worm.

Andalo, V., Santos, V., Moreira, G.F., Moreira, C.C. and Moino, A.  2010. Evaluation of entomopathogenic nematodes under laboratory and greenhouses conditions for the control of Spodoptera frugiperda Ciencia Rural  40: 1860-1866.

Use entomopathogenic nematodes to control western corn rootworm by Ganpati Jagdale

Efficacies of two biological control agents including entomopathogenic fungus (Metarhizium anisopliae) and insect-parasitic nematode (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) against western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera was compared with two insecticides including Tefluthrin (synthetic pyrethroid compound) and clothianidin (neonicotinoid compound).  According to Pilz et al (2009), insect-parasitic nematode,  H. bacteriophora was as effective as both insecticides in reducing population of the western corn rootworm. Reference:

Pilz, C., Keller, S., Kuhlmann, U. and Toepfer, S. 2009.  Comparative efficacy assessment of fungi, nematodes and insecticides to control western corn rootworm larvae in maize.  Biocontrol. 54: 671-684.

Control of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda with entomopathogenic nematodes by Ganpati Jagdale

The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is considered as an economically important pest of corn in Brazil.  Entomopathogenic nematodes have a potential to include as biological control agents in the integrated pest management (IPM) programs to control the armyworm.  Recently, Negrisoli et al. (2010a) reported that several insecticides including Chlorpyrifos, Deltamethrin, Llufenuron, Deltramethrin + Triazophos, Diflubenzuron, Gamacyhalothrin, Lambdacyhalothrin, Spinosad, Chlorpyrifos, Cypermethrin, Triflumuron and Permethrin were compatible with the three species of entomopathogenic nematodes including Heterorhabditis indica, Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema glaseri under laboratory conditions.  Furthermore, it has been also reported that the efficacy of an entomopathogenic nematode, H. indica was enhanced against fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda when mixed with an insecticide, Lufenuron (Negrisoli et al., 2010b). Read following research papers on compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes with insecticides.

Negrisoli, A.S., Garcia, M.S. and Negrisoli, C.R.C.B. 2010a.  Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida) with registered insecticides for Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory conditions. Crop Protection. 29: 545-549

Negrisoli, A.S., Garcia, M.S., Negrisoli, C.R.C.B., Bernardi, D. and da Silva, A. 2010b.  Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida) and insecticide mixtures to control Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn. Crop Protection. 29: 677-683.

Control of the western corn rootworm with Heterorhabditis bacteriophora by Ganpati Jagdale

It has been demonstrated that that application of an entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora can reduce the population of the western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera in the field and thus reducing the damage caused by this insect pest to corn roots and preventing subsequent lodging of plants (Stefan et al., 2010). References:

Stefan, T., Ibolya, H.Z., Ehlers, R.U., Peters, A. and Kuhlmann, U. 2010.  The effect of application techniques on field-scale efficacy: can the use of entomopathogenic nematodes reduce damage by western corn rootworm larvae? Agricultural and Forest Entomology. 12: 389-402.