Immune response

Resistance of Pulmonate slug, Limax pseudoflavus to slug-parasitic nematode by Ganpati Jagdale

Slugs and slug- parasitic nematodes

According to Rae et al. (2008), slug parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita was not effective against the pulmonate Slug species, Limax pseudoflavus because nematode infective juveniles were encapsulated and killed in the slug shells due to the immune response of slug, Limax pseudoflavus.

Read following papers about interaction between different slug species and the slug-parasitic nematode.

Grewal, S.K., Grewal, P.S. and Hammond, R.B. 2003.  Susceptibility of North American native and non-native slugs (Mollusca : Gastropoda) to Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Nematoda : Rhabditidae).  Biocontrol Science and Technology  13: 119-125.

Nermut, J., Puza, V. and Mracek, Z. 2012.  The response of Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) and Steinernema feltiae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) to different host-associated cues. Biological Control 61: 201-206.

Rae, R., Verdun, C., Grewal, P., Robertson, J.F. and Wilson, M.J.  2007.  Biological control of terrestrial molluscs using Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita - progress and prospects. Pest Management Science 63: 1153-1164.

Rae, R.G., Robertson, J.F. and Wilson, M.J.  2006. The chemotactic response of Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Nematoda : Rhabditida) to cues of Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca : Gastropoda).  Nematology 8: 197-200.

Rae, R.G., Robertson, J.F. and Wilson, M.J.  2008. Susceptibility and immune response of Deroceras reticulatum, Milax gagates and Limax pseudoflavus exposed to the parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 97: 61-69.

Rae, R.G., Robertson, J.F. and Wilson, M.J.  2009. Chemoattraction and host preference of the gastropod parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita.  Journal of Parasitology 95: 517-526.

Ross, J.L., Ivanova, E.S., Sirgel, W.F., Malan, A.P. and Wilson, M.J.  Diversity and distribution of nematodes associated with terrestrial slugs in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Journal of Helminthology 86: 215-221.

Small, R.W. and Bradford, C. 2008.  Behavioural responses of Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Nematoda : Rhabditida) to mucus from potential hosts. Nematology 10: 591-598.

Insect blood clotting can prevent infection by entomopathogenic nematodes by Ganpati Jagdale

Recently, Hyrsl et al. (2011) demonstrated that the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster as an immune response can form the blood (hemolymph) clots and protect against infection by an entomopathogenic nematode (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) and its symbiotic bacterium (Photorhabdus luminescens). Read following papers for more information on the interaction between fruit fly and entomopathogenic nematodes.

Hyrsl, P., Dobes, P., Wang, Z., Hauling, T., Wilhelmsson, C. and Theopold, U. 2011. Clotting Factors and Eicosanoids Protect against Nematode Infections.  Journal of Innate Immunity 3: 65-70.