Three beneficial nematodes including Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema feltiae have a potential to use as a biological control agents to manage populations of Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, which is one of the most economically important insect pest of many fruit crops.Read More
A new Steinernematid nematode species isolated from central part of India was named as Steinernema dharanaii sp. n. (Nematoda : Steinernematidae) by Kulkarni et al (2012) using both morphological and molecular techniques based on ITS rDNA. These researchers found that this new species was closely associated with 'glaseri-group' of Steinernema spp. but its infective juveniles (Fig. 1), males and females had distinct morphological characteristics.Read More
Two beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes including Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Fig.1) and Steinernema carpocapsae (Fig. 2) have showed a potential to control cucurbit flies, Dacus ciliatus (Kamali et al., 2013). These nematodes are considered as beneficial nematodes because they have been used as biological control agents to control insects that are damaging to crops and harmful to animalsRead More
Biological control is the introduction and/or establishment of natural enemies including parasites, predators and pathogens (fungi and bacteria) to suppress the population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes lower than their economic threshold level. Following are 24 nematophagous fungi and six pathogenic bacteria have a potential to use as biological control agents to control different kinds of plant-parasitic nematodes.Read More
The peanut burrower bugs are true bugs because they belong to an insect family Cydnidae in the order, Hemiptera. The peanut burrower bugs are scientifically known as Pangaeus bilineatus and considered as one of the major insects pests of peanuts in the peanut, Arachis hypogaea producing States in the U.S. (Lis et al. 2000) .Read More
Entomopathogenic Steinernema riobrave is a warm adapted nematode species that uses an intermediate foraging strategy that lie between the ambush “sit and wait” strategy and cruise strategy to find and infect its both the mobile/sedentary insects at the soil surface or immobile stages deep in the soil and after infection, it uses its symbiotic bacteria, Xenorhabdus cabanillasii (Tailliez et al., 2006) to kill insect hosts.Read More
The codling moth, Cydia pomonella is one of the most damaging pets of apples, pears and walnuts. Adult moths are gray in color with dark brown band at the tip of wings. Larvae are white in color with dark brown head. Only larvae of codling moth cause damage to fruits and adults do not cause any damage to either apple or pear fruits or trees.Read More
The measurement of both the morphological and molecular characteristics showed that the newly isolated beneficial nematode from Missouri, USA is closely related to the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema costaricense, which was originally isolated from Costa Rica in 2007 (Uribe-Lorio et al., 2007).Read More
Seven beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes including Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, H. indica, H. megidis, Steinernema ceratophorum, S. feltiae, S. hebeiense and S. litorale have been tested against Chive gnat, Bradysia odoriphaga. This insect pest is one of the most damaging pests of Chinese chive, Allium tuberosum.Read More
Strawberry root weevils [Otiorhynchus ovatus] are one of the most important insect pests of strawberry crop. Adults of strawberry root weevil feed on the edges of strawberry leaves [leaf notching] but this damage is not considered as economically important like the damage caused by their larval stages to strawberry roots [root pruning].Read More
Why beneficial nematodes are safer alternatives to pesticides- Nematodeinformation
To control insect pests in your organic garden, beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes are safer alternatives to chemical insecticides because.......
- Beneficial nematodes and their symbiotic bacterium have no detrimental effects on animals and plants.
- Both nematodes and their symbiotic bacteria do not cause any harm to the personnel involved in their production and application.
- Entomopathogenic nematode treated agriculture products are safe to handle and eat.
- Entomopathogenic nematodes and symbiotic bacteria do not have any pathogenic effects on humans or animals.
- When applied in the soil, entomopathogenic nematodes have also no negative effect on beneficial nematodes (bacteriovore, fungivore, omnivore and predatory) and other microbial communities.
- Entomopathogenic nematodes are also not harmful to the economically important beneficial insects such as honeybees.
- Finally, entomopathogenic nematodes are non-polluting and thus environmentally safe.
Several different species of white grubs including Anomala orientalis, Ataenius spretulus, Blitopertha orientalis, Cotinus nitida, Cyclocephala borealis, Cyclocephala pasadenae, Cyclocephala hirta, Exomala orientalis, Hoplia philanthus, Maladera castanea, Melolontha melolontha, Phyllophaga Spp. and Rhizotrogus majalis are major pests of turf grass.Read More
Crane flies Tipula paludosa are one of important pests of turfgrass. Only larval stages (Fig. 1) of crane fly cause damage to turfgrass. Crane fly adults are harmless to plants (Fig. 2). Crane fly larvae mainly feed on turfgrass roots and crowns but some time they can also feed on the turfgrass foliage. The main symptom of crane fly damage that you will notice is the bare patches of dead turf in your lawn or golf courses.Read More
Entomopathogenic nematodes including Steinernema rarum and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora can reduce over 53% reproduction of a plant-parasitic nematode called Nacobbus aberransRead More
Eastern Subterranean Termite, Reticulitermes flavipes are the most destructive and economically important pest of wood industry. Current research shows that the entomopathogenic nematodes also called beneficial nematodes have a potential to use as environmentally safe biological control agents against termites.Read More
Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus is one of most import insect pests of live stocks including cattle, buffalo, horses, donkeys, goats, sheep, deer, pigs and dogs. This tick is known for transmitting cattle fever, which is caused by the protozoal parasites including Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis.Read More
Fuller rose beetle, Asynonychus godmani- Nematode Information
Fuller rose beetle, Asynonychus godmani is one of the most economically important pests of roses and citrus. A laboratory study conducted by Morse and Lindegren (1996) showed that an entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae caused a maximum 67 and 83% mortality of three week old larvae and adults of the Fuller rose beetle, Asynonychus godmani with 500 and 150 nematode infective juveniles, respectively. Subsequent field study also showed that the application of nematodes significantly reduced the emergence of adult fuller rose beetles in the second year after nematode application. This suggests that the applied entomopathogenic nematodes were recycled and persisted in the field for two years.
Morse, J.G. and Lindegren, J.E. 1996. Suppression of fuller rose beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on citrus with Steinernema carpocapsae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae). Florida Entomologist 79: 373-384.
Symbiotic bacteria, Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. sonorensis, Orozco, Hill & Stock, 2013
Based on phenotypic characteristics and sequences of the 16S rDNA, the symbiotic bacteria extracted from an entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis sonorensis has been identified as Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. sonorensis, Orozco, Hill & Stock, 2013 (Orozco et al., 2013).
Orozco, R.A., Hill, T. and Stock, S.P. 2013. Characterization and phylogenetic relationships of Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. sonorensis (gamma-Proteobacteria: Enterobacteriaceae), the bacterial symbiont of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis sonorensis (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae). Current Microbiology 66: 30-39.
Stock, S.P., Rivera-Orduno, B. and Flores-Lara, Y. 2009. Heterorhabditis sonorensis n. sp (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae), a natural pathogen of the seasonal cicada Diceroprocta ornea (Walker) (Homoptera: Cicadidae) in the Sonoran desert. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 100: 175-184.
Steinernema ethiopiense- Nematodeinformation
Using Galleria mellonella baiting technique (Bedding and Akhurst, 1975), an entomopthogenic nematode isolated from Ethiopia was identified as Stienernematid nematode. Based on both morphological and molecular characteristics, this entomopathogenic nematodes was considered as a new species and named as Steinernema ethiopiense (Tamiru et al., 2012).
For detail information on its morphological and molecular characteristics of this new species and its comparisons with other known species of Steinernematid nematodes read following literature.
Bedding, R.A. and R.J. Akhurst. 1975. A simple technique for detection of insect parasitic rhabditid nematodes in soil. Nematologica. 21: 109-110.
Tamiru, T., Waeyenberge, L., Hailu, T., Ehlers, R.-U., Půža, V., Mráček, Z. 2012. Steinernema ethiopiense sp. n. (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), a new entomopathogenic nematode from Ethiopia. Nematology 14: 741- 757.