Entomopathogenic Nematode identification

A new beneficial nematode Steinernema sacchari from South Africa by Ganpati Jagdale

A new beneficial entomopathogenic nematode collected from a sugarcane field located in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa was named as Steinernema sacchari.  

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A new species of entomopathogenic Steinernema nematodes by Ganpati Jagdale

A new species of entomopathogenic Steinernema nematode that isolated from southwest Bohemia, Czech Republic was identified and named as Steinernema poinari sp. n. (Nematoda : Steinernematidae) using both morphological and molecular techniques (Mráček et al., 2014). This new species was recovered from soil using Galleria baiting technique described by Bedding and Akhurst (1975).

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Steinernema costaricense the beneficial Nematode found in Missouri by Ganpati Jagdale

The measurement of both the morphological and molecular characteristics showed that the newly isolated beneficial nematode from Missouri, USA is closely related to the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema costaricense, which was originally isolated from Costa Rica in 2007 (Uribe-Lorio et al., 2007).

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A new entomopathogenic Stienernematid nematode from Ethiopia by Ganpati Jagdale

 Steinernema ethiopiense- Nematodeinformation

Using Galleria mellonella baiting technique (Bedding and Akhurst, 1975), an entomopthogenic nematode isolated from Ethiopia was identified as Stienernematid nematode. Based on both morphological and molecular characteristics, this entomopathogenic nematodes was considered as a new species and named as Steinernema ethiopiense (Tamiru et al., 2012).

For detail information on its morphological and molecular characteristics of this new species and its comparisons with other known species of Steinernematid nematodes read following literature.

Literature:

Bedding, R.A. and R.J. Akhurst. 1975. A simple technique for detection of insect parasitic rhabditid nematodes in soil. Nematologica. 21: 109-110.

Tamiru, T., Waeyenberge, L., Hailu, T., Ehlers, R.-U., Půža, V., Mráček, Z. 2012.  Steinernema ethiopiense sp. n. (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), a new entomopathogenic nematode from Ethiopia. Nematology 14: 741- 757.

A new entomopathogenic Stienernematid nematode from China by Ganpati Jagdale

Steinernema xinbinense- Nematodeinformation

Using Galleria mellonella baiting technique (Bedding and Akhurst, 1975), a new species of entomopthogenic nematode collected from Liaoning province of North China was identified as Stienernematid nematode and based on both morphological and molecular characteristics it was named as Steinernema xinbinense (Ma et al., 2012).

For detail information on the morphological and molecular characteristics of this new species read following literature.

Literature:

Bedding, R.A. and R.J. Akhurst. 1975. A simple technique for detection of insect parasitic rhabditid nematodes in soil. Nematologica. 21: 109-110.

Ma, J., Chen, S., De Clercq, P., Waeyenberge, L., Han, R. and Moens, M. 2012. A new entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema xinbinense n. sp. (Nematoda: Steinernematidae), from north China. Nematology 14: 723-739

A new entomopathogenic Heterorhabdtid nematode from China by Ganpati Jagdale

Heterorhabditid Nematode: Heterorhabditis beicherriana

Based on both morphological and molecular characteristics an entomopathogenic nematode isolated from an orchard located near Beijing, China was considered as a new species Heterorhabditid nematode and named as Heterorhabditis beicherriana (Li et al., 2012). For more information on molecular technique read following literature.

Literature:

Li, X.Y., Liu, Q.Z., Nermut, J., Puza, V. and Mracek, Z. 2012. Heterorhabditis beicherriana n. sp (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae), a new entomopathogenic nematode from the Shunyi district of Beijing, China. Zootaxa  Issue: 3569: 25-40.  

We know now where infective juveniles store their symbiotic bacteria by Ganpati Jagdale

It has been always reported that the infective juveniles of Steinernema spp. carry their symbiotic bacteria, Xenorhabdus spp. in a special intestinal vesicle (Bird and Akhurst, 1983) whereas the infective juveniles of Heterorhabdits spp. carry their symbiotic bacteria, Photorhabdus spp. in the anterior part of the intestine (Boemare et al., 1996) and release them in the body cavity of their insect hosts.

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A new technique for identification of entomopathogenic nematodes and bacteria by Ganpati Jagdale

Entomopathogenic nematodes

Recently, San-Blas et al. (2011; 2012) demonstrated that Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflection (FTIR/ATR) can be used for identification of entomopathogenic nematodes and their symbiotic bacteria.  Although this technique can make a distinction between different species of nematodes or symbiotic bacteria, its rapidity not known.

Read following papers for detail information on FTIR/ATR technique.

San-Blas, E., Cubillan, N., Guerra, M., Portillo, E. and Esteves, I. 2012. Characterization of Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus bacteria by Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflection (FT-IR/ATR). Spectrochimica Acta Part a-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 93: 58-62.

San-Blas, E., Guerra, M., Portillo, E., Esteves, I., Cubillan, N. and Alvarado, Y. 2011.  ATR/FTIR characterization of Steinernema glaseri and Heterorhabditis indica. Vibrational Spectroscopy 57: 220-228.

A new entomopathogenic nematode species from South Africa by Ganpati Jagdale

An entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema citrae- Nematode Information Galleria-baiting technique (Bedding and Akhurst, 1975), was used to isolate an entomopathogenic nematode from the soil collected from a citrus orchard in South Africa. Based on molecular characteristics, this new nematode was named as Steinernema citrae that  found to be closely related Stienernema feltiae group.

For detail information read following original paper

Bedding, R.A. and R.J. Akhurst. 1975. A simple technique for detection of insect parasitic rhabditid nematodes in soil. Nematologica. 21: 109-110.

Stokwe, N.F., Malan, A.P., Nguyen, K.B., Knoetze, R. and Tiedt, L. 2011. Steinernema citrae n. sp. (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), a new entomopathogenic nematode from South Africa. Nematology 13: 569-587.

A new entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis atacamensis from Chile by Ganpati Jagdale

An entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis atacamensis- Nematode Information New entomopathogenic nematode species was found in the soil collected from Atacama Desert in Chile and was named after Atacama Desert as Heterorhabditis atacamensis. I like the way nematode taxonomists (Edgington et al., 2011) used individual morphological characteristics to differentiate this new species from other morphologically similar species of entomopathogenic nematodes. For example, these researchers showed that the H. atacamensis differed from H. marelatus, H. downesi and H. amazonensis based on position of hemizonid (a nematode sensory organ), position of excretory pore and female tail terminus shape, and number and position of genital papillae, respectively.  Using molecular techniques, Edgington et al. (2011) were also able to distinguish H. atacamensis from closely related entomopathogenic nematode species, H. safricana.

 Research Paper

Edgington, S., Buddie, A. G., Moore, D., France, A., Merino, L. and Hunt, D. J. 2011. Heterorhabditis atacamensis n. sp (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae), a new entomopathogenic nematode from the Atacama Desert, Chile. Journal of Helminthology 85: 381-394.

New entomopathogenic nematode, Oscheius carolinensis found in vermicompost by Ganpati Jagdale

New entomopathogenic nematode, Oscheius carolinensis- Nematode Information Based on morphological and molecular characteristics, the nematode isolated from vermicompost using Galleria bait method (Bedding and Akhurst, 1975) has been described as a new entomopathogenic nematode species, Oscheius carolinensis (Ye et al., 2010).  This nematode is also pathogenic to cabbage butterfly (Pieris rapae) and mealworms (Tenebrio molitor).

 Literature

Bedding, R.A. and R.J. Akhurst. 1975. A simple technique for detection of insect parasitic rhabditid nematodes in soil. Nematologica. 21: 109-110.

Ye, W., Torres-Barragan, A. and Cardoza, Y.J. 2010. Oscheius carolinensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae), a potential entomopathogenic nematode from vermicompost. Nematology 12: 121-135.

Occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes in Egypt: Nematode Information by Ganpati Jagdale

Entomopathogenic nematodes from Egypt

The occurrence and distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes including Heterorhabditis indica, Steinernema abbasi and Steinernema carpocapsae have been reported from four geographical regions (Northern, Middle, Southern and Sinai Peninsula) of Egypt.

These findings were presented by Abu-Shady, N.M., Shamseldean, M.M., Abd-Elbary, N.A. and Stock, S.P. at the 50th annual meeting of the Society of Nematologists held in Corvallis, Oregon from July 17-20, 2011.

Entomopathogenic nematodes for the biological control of False codling moth- Nematode information by Ganpati Jagdale

Entomopathogenic nematodes and False codling moth
  • A presence of entomopathogenic nematode species including Steinernema khoisanae, Steinernema yirgalemense, Steinernema citrae, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Heterorhabditis zealandica have been reported in citrus orchards in the Western Cape, Eastern Cape and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa (Malan et al., 2011).
  • All the above nematode species have showed a very high virulence against false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta an economically important pest of citrus in South Africa.  For example, S. yirgalemense can cause over 74% mortality of both larval and pupal mortality of false codling moth when applied at the rate of 50-200 infective juveniles/ larval or pupal stages of false codling moth.
  • Two entomopathogenic nematode species including S. yirgalemense and S. citrae were reported for the first time from South Africa (Malan et al., 2011).

Read following papers on entomopathogenic nematodes from South Africa

de Waal, J.Y., Malan, A.P. and Addison, M.F. 2011.  Evaluating mulches together with Heterorhabditis zealandica (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) for the control of diapausing codling moth larvae, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  Biocontrol Science and Technology 21: 255-270.

de Waal, J.Y., Malan, A.P., Levings, J. and Addison, M.F. 2010.  Key elements in the successful control of diapausing codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in wooden fruit bins with a South African isolate of Heterorhabditis zealandica (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae). Biocontrol Science and Technology. 20: 489-502.

Hatting, J., Stock, S.P. and Hazir, S.  2009. Diversity and distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae) in South Africa.  Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 102: 120-128.

Malan, A.P., Knoetze, R. and Moore, S.D.  2011.  Isolation and identification of entomopathogenic nematodes from citrus orchards in South Africa and their biocontrol potential against false codling moth. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 108: 115-125.

Malan, A.P., Nguyen, K. B. and Addison, M. F. 2006.  Entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) from the southwestern parts of South Africa. African Plant Protection 12: 65-69.

Malan, A.P., Nguyen, K.B., de Waal, J.Y. and Tiedt, L. 2008. Heterorhabditis safricana n. sp (Rhabditida : Heterorhabditidae), a new entomopathogenic nematode from South Africa. Nematology 10: 381-396.

Entomopathogenic nematode identification with a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) by Ganpati Jagdale

Entomopathogenic nematodes and qPCR Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technique can be used for the identification of entomopathogenic nematodes in the both Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematodae families directly from soil samples.

Species specific primers and TaqMan (R) probes from the ITS rDNA region for the EPNs were used for the identification of four species of entomopathogenic nematodes including Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema carpocapsae, Steinernema feltiae and Steinernema scapterisci (Campos-Herrera et al., 2011).

A publication on indentification of entomopathogenic nematodes using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technique.

Campos-Herrera, R., El-Borai, F.E., Stuart, R.J., Graham, J.H. and Duncan, L.W. 2011.   Entomopathogenic nematodes, phoretic Paenibacillus spp., and the use of real time quantitative PCR to explore soil food webs in Florida citrus groves. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 108: 30-39.