The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda is one of the most economically important pests of different plant species including corn, sorghum, forage, and turf grasses. Although fall armyworm larvae actively damage crops throughout the United States during growing season, they generally die when harsh winter begins in northern, central and eastern United States. Then question arises how they could re-infest fields and cause damage to the crops grown in these areas during spring and summer again.Read More
Four beneficial nematodes including Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema feltiae, Steinernema intermedium and Steinernema kraussei have been reported from Portugal.Read More
A new beneficial entomopathogenic nematode collected from a sugarcane field located in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa was named as Steinernema sacchari.Read More
A new beneficial nematode identified as Steinernema tophus was collected from a vineyard located in Clanwilliam, South Africa.Read More
Beneficial Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes have a potential to control tropical sod webworm, Herpetogramma phaeopteralis, one of the most damaging pests of turfgrass. Sod worms are lepidopterous insects that cause a serious damage to turfgrasses that are grown in the athletic fields, golf courses, home lawns and recreational parks. Adult moths do not cause any type of damage to turfgrass but their larval stages feed on turfgrass and reduce its aesthetic value.Read More
Two beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes including Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Fig.1) and Steinernema carpocapsae (Fig. 2) have showed a potential to control cucurbit flies, Dacus ciliatus (Kamali et al., 2013). These nematodes are considered as beneficial nematodes because they have been used as biological control agents to control insects that are damaging to crops and harmful to animalsRead More
The peanut burrower bugs are true bugs because they belong to an insect family Cydnidae in the order, Hemiptera. The peanut burrower bugs are scientifically known as Pangaeus bilineatus and considered as one of the major insects pests of peanuts in the peanut, Arachis hypogaea producing States in the U.S. (Lis et al. 2000) .Read More
The codling moth, Cydia pomonella is one of the most damaging pets of apples, pears and walnuts. Adult moths are gray in color with dark brown band at the tip of wings. Larvae are white in color with dark brown head. Only larvae of codling moth cause damage to fruits and adults do not cause any damage to either apple or pear fruits or trees.Read More
Strawberry root weevils [Otiorhynchus ovatus] are one of the most important insect pests of strawberry crop. Adults of strawberry root weevil feed on the edges of strawberry leaves [leaf notching] but this damage is not considered as economically important like the damage caused by their larval stages to strawberry roots [root pruning].Read More
Why beneficial nematodes are safer alternatives to pesticides- Nematodeinformation
To control insect pests in your organic garden, beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes are safer alternatives to chemical insecticides because.......
- Beneficial nematodes and their symbiotic bacterium have no detrimental effects on animals and plants.
- Both nematodes and their symbiotic bacteria do not cause any harm to the personnel involved in their production and application.
- Entomopathogenic nematode treated agriculture products are safe to handle and eat.
- Entomopathogenic nematodes and symbiotic bacteria do not have any pathogenic effects on humans or animals.
- When applied in the soil, entomopathogenic nematodes have also no negative effect on beneficial nematodes (bacteriovore, fungivore, omnivore and predatory) and other microbial communities.
- Entomopathogenic nematodes are also not harmful to the economically important beneficial insects such as honeybees.
- Finally, entomopathogenic nematodes are non-polluting and thus environmentally safe.
Several different species of white grubs including Anomala orientalis, Ataenius spretulus, Blitopertha orientalis, Cotinus nitida, Cyclocephala borealis, Cyclocephala pasadenae, Cyclocephala hirta, Exomala orientalis, Hoplia philanthus, Maladera castanea, Melolontha melolontha, Phyllophaga Spp. and Rhizotrogus majalis are major pests of turf grass.Read More
Crane flies Tipula paludosa are one of important pests of turfgrass. Only larval stages (Fig. 1) of crane fly cause damage to turfgrass. Crane fly adults are harmless to plants (Fig. 2). Crane fly larvae mainly feed on turfgrass roots and crowns but some time they can also feed on the turfgrass foliage. The main symptom of crane fly damage that you will notice is the bare patches of dead turf in your lawn or golf courses.Read More
Entomopathogenic nematodes including Steinernema rarum and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora can reduce over 53% reproduction of a plant-parasitic nematode called Nacobbus aberransRead More
Fuller rose beetle, Asynonychus godmani- Nematode Information
Fuller rose beetle, Asynonychus godmani is one of the most economically important pests of roses and citrus. A laboratory study conducted by Morse and Lindegren (1996) showed that an entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae caused a maximum 67 and 83% mortality of three week old larvae and adults of the Fuller rose beetle, Asynonychus godmani with 500 and 150 nematode infective juveniles, respectively. Subsequent field study also showed that the application of nematodes significantly reduced the emergence of adult fuller rose beetles in the second year after nematode application. This suggests that the applied entomopathogenic nematodes were recycled and persisted in the field for two years.
Morse, J.G. and Lindegren, J.E. 1996. Suppression of fuller rose beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on citrus with Steinernema carpocapsae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae). Florida Entomologist 79: 373-384.
Research papers on entomopathogenic nematodes and their symbiotic bacteria
Following 12 research papers on entomopathogenic nematodes and their symbiotic bacteria were presented at the Society of Nematologists 51st Annual meeting, which was held in Savannah, Georgia from August 12th -15th, 2012.
- Ali, J.G., Alborn, H.T., Campos-Herrera, R., Kaplan, F.,Duncan, L.W., Rodriguez-Saona, C., Koppenhöfer, A.M. and L.L. Stelinski, L.L. 2012. Herbivore induced plants volatiles and entomopathogenic nematodes as agents of plant indirect defense.
- Bal, H.K.,Taylor, R.A.J. and Grewal, P.S.2012. Ambush foraging entomopathogenic nematodes employ ‘sprinting emigrants’ for long distance dispersal in the absence of hosts.
- Blackburn, D. andAdams, B.J.2012. Evolution of virulence in an entomopathogenic nematode symbiont.
- Campos-Herrera, R., ElBorai, F.E. andDuncan, L.W. 2012. Manipulating soil food webs in aFloridaorganic citrus orchard to enhance biocontrol by entomopathogenic nematodes.
- Dillman, A., Mortazavi, A., Hallem, E. and Paul W. Sternberg, P.W. 2012. Host-seeking, olfaction, foraging strategies, and the genomic architecture of parasitism among Steinernema nematodes.
- Griffin, C.T., Dillon, A.m.,Harvey, C.D. and C.D. Williams, C.D. 2012. Multitrophic interactions involving entomopathogenic nematodes applied against pine weevils in a forest ecosystem.
- Lancaster, J.D, Mohammad, B. and Abebe, E. 2012. Entomopathogenic symbiosis of Caenorhabditis briggsae KT0001 and Serratia sp. SCBI: Analysis of fitness.
- Noguez, J., Conner, E.S., Zhou, Y., Ciche, T.A., Ragains, J.R. and Butcher, R.A. 2012. A novel ascaroside controls the parasitic life cycle of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora.
- Pathak, E., Campos-Herrera, R., ElBorai, F.E., Stuart,R.J., Graham, J.H. andDuncan, L.W. 2012. Environmental factors affecting community structure of nematophagus fungi and their prey inFloridacitrus groves.
- Shapiro-Ilan, D.I., Leskey, T.C., Wright, S.E., Brown,I.and Fall, L. 2012. Entomophathogenic nematodes: Effects of the soil agroecosystem on biological control potential.
- Somasekhar Nethi, S. Jagdale, G.B. and Grewal, P.S. 2012. Interactions among entomopathogenic nematodes and other nematode trophic groups and plants in agroecosystems.
- Zeng Qi Zhao, Z.Q., Davies, K.A., Brenton-Rule, E.C., Grangier, J., Gruber, M.A.M., Giblin-Davis, R.M. and Lester, P.J. 2012. New Diploscapter sp. (Rhabditida: Diploscapteridae) from the native ant, Prolasius advenus, inNew Zealand.
Recently, three new species of slug-parasitic nematodes namely Angiostoma sp., Phasmarhabditis sp. SA1 and Phasmarhabditis sp. SA2 have been reported from Western Cape Province of South Africa (Ross at al., 2012). These slug-parasitic nematodes were recovered during a survey and identified using both morphological and molecular techniques.
Ross, J.L., Ivanova, E.S., Sirgel, W.F., Malan, A.P. and Wilson, M.J. 2012. Diversity and distribution of nematodes associated with terrestrial slugs in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Journal of Helminthology 86: 215-221.
Interaction between entomopathogenic nematodes and mustard beetles- Nematodeinformation It has been demonstrated that the virulence of Heterorhabditis indica and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora against the pupae of mustard beetle, Phaedon cochleariae was high at 30oC but the virulence of Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema feltiae was high at 25oC (Mahar et al., 2012).
Mahar, A.N., Jan, N.D. and Mahar, A.Q. 2012. Comparative effectiveness of entomopathogenic nematodes against the pupae of mustard beetle, Phaedon cochleariae F. (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera). Pakistan Journal of Zoology 44: 517-523.
Entomopathogenic nematodes and the sugarcane billbug, Sphenophorus levis- Nematode Information Sugarcane is grown as an important cash crop in many countries but insect pests like the sugarcane billbug, Sphenophorus levis can cause a tremendous yield loss to this crop. Entomopathogenic nematodes have a great potential to use as a biological control agent against the sugarcane bill bugs. Recently, Giometti et al. (2011) reported that entomopathogenic nematodes including Steinernema brazilense strain IBCB n6 and three strains of Heterorhabditis sp. (IBCB n10, IBCB n24 and IBCB n44) were highly virulent causing over 60% mortality of adults of the sugarcane billbug. Sphenophorus levis.
Giometti, FHC, Leite, LG., Tavares, FM., Schmit, F.S., Batista, A. and Dell'Acqua, R. 2011. Virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida) against Sphenophorus levis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Bragantia 70: 81-86.
Entomopathogenic Nematodes- Nematode Information Insect-parasitic nematodes that belong to both Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae families are also called as entomopathogenic nematodes because they cause disease to their insect hosts with the help of mutualistically associated symbiotic bacterial pathogens.Read More
Entomopathogenic nematodes and their symbiotic bacteria- Nematode Information
Molecular studies demonstrated that the closely related Photorhabdus, symbiotic bacteria of Heterorhabditis nematodes and Xenorhabdus, symbiotic bacteria of Steinernematid nematodes have developed totally different molecular strategies for the same objective of virulence to insects and symbiosis with the nematode.
These findings were presented by An, R. and Grewal, P.S. at the 50th annual meeting of the Society of Nematologists held in Corvallis, Oregon from July 17-20, 2011.